Features of Programming Language
After having a good look of programming language and their qualities now we turn our concentration to the next topic that is about various features of the programming languages. These programming language features have an important impact on the quality of communication. The features which we are going to discuss now may be either as very important or as less important or as not even important to a specific programming languages. Some features are good and used in some programming language whereas others have good impact in some other programming g languages. Even some of the features also exist which are used in more than one programming languages. Various features of programming languages are shown in fig 6.17, and can used as guidance in selecting a language for the applications.
Variable Name and scope
Every language provides of variable naming and its scope in its own format and rules and regulations.
Many language provide the feature of pre processor. Basically pre processor is a program that processes our source program before it passed to the compiler .
There are some programming languages that provide the feature of named constants. Some even allow to define named constant expressions.
Binding Scope and Extent
As such most of the programming language provide the concepts of binding scope and extent in much extent.
Data types and Strong Typing
A data type is a set of data objects and a set of operations on those
Objects which create build up destroy modify and pick apart instances of the objects.
Most programming languages provide basic arithmetic relational and logical operations.
Most programming languages provide various types of a data structure to be used in a program.
Recursion, in the form of recursive sub program calls is one the most important sequence control structures in programming. Many algorithms are most naturally represented using recursion.
The concept of data abstraction incorporates both data encapsulation and abstract data types. Both mechanisms define composite data objects in terms of the operations that can be performed on them and the details of data representation and data manipulation are suppressed by mechanisms.
Data abstraction provides a powerful mechanism for writing well structured and easily modified program. If the application requires information hiding, we should look at language that have information hiding and data abstraction features.
Procedural or algorithmic abstraction is one of the most powerful tools in the programmer arsenal.
A programming language for software engineering must provide a small but powerful set of control structures to describe the flow of execution with in a program unit.
Some language provide feature of exception handing so to recover from run time error or any other exceptions to occur.
Support for Object Oriented approaches
Some programming have been designed expressly to support this style of programming. These languages namely small talk Eiffel and java are called object oriented programming languages. Other languages such as C++and ada 95, while not exclusively object oriented support the paradigm through features that enable the programming of extensible abstractions. Many languages have been or are being extended to support object oriented programming .
Each programming languages has a library of function and procedure of its own. The more extensive the library the more services are provided by the language. Unfortunately, the library must be linked with the complied programs, which is somewhat similar to adding the size of the entire library to the program during table linkage.
Some languages provide their own compilers which are used to translate the high level languages into its objects code. In addition it , it also performs some other tasks:
Debuggers are the software support tools that help the programming to inspect the program at his own speed while the program is being executed. Today compiler with usual debuggers are also available which are capable of placing the execution path of program on the screen and showing the content of each selected variable on the screen as the program is being executed.
When a program is executed them the parts of the program and data beings used must be allocated the memory. There are basically two ways of memory allocation:
(a) Static Memory Allocation : In this memory allocation the program is provided a permanent memory location and then saved.
(b) Dynamic memory Allocation :In such type of memory allocation, the memory is allocated dynamically ( temporarily) to the program.
Some programming languages provide only static memory allocation some provide only dynamic memory allocation and some provide both.
File Handling Utilities
Most programming languages provide a window to the operating system for input and output handling. The use of a text file ( file of characters ) is common in almost any programming language. However there are many other file organization and access methods that a large software product may need to implement like indexed sequential files direct files etc. A programmer can create any of these files directly using his own programming knowledge.
Every system environment has a library of prewritten and complied program that perform certain tasks. These programs are usually called utility programs. Utility programs maybe used independently while in the system environment .
Two or more segments of a program can be executing concurrently if the effect of executing the segment is independent of the order in which they are executed.
Taking full advantage of parallel architecture requires the co operative efforts of both hardware and software. Having a parallel machine and programming it as if it were a serial machine will not produce the desired performance gains. So it must be assured that design and coding approach make full use of the resource before coding the software if an application demands high computation speeds.
Real time Consideration
Real time applications have many special compiler needs that are applicable only to real time software products. If there are concerns about such needs, we must be sure that the language and its environment help for those needs.
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