Inorganic chemistry is the field of chemistry which is particularly concerned with the behavior and properties of inorganic compounds. This domain includes all chemical compounds except the myriad organic compounds (carbon based compounds, owing C-H bonds), which are the domains of organic chemistry. Inorganic chemistry is field of organ metallic chemistry.
Most of the inorganic compounds are ionic compounds in nature, which includes cations and anions and binds through ionic bonding. Salts (which are ionic compounds) are magnesium chloride MgCl2, which includes magnesium cations Mg2+ and chloride anions Cl-; or sodium oxide Na2O, which includes sodium cations Na+ and oxide anions O2-. In any of the salt, the ions are in a manner that the electric charges cancel out each other, so that the resulting bulk compound is electrically neutral. The ions are usually explained by their oxidation state and their ease of formation can be inferred from the ionization potential or from the electron affinity of the parent elements.
The main classes of inorganic salts are the oxides, the carbonates, the halides and the sulphates. Many inorganic compounds are having characteristically high melting points. Inorganic salts are typically poor conductors in the solid state. Another significant characteristic is their solubility in water and ease of crystallization where some salts (like NaCl) are directly soluble in water while others (like SiO2) are not.
The simplest inorganic reaction is double displacement at the time in mixing of two salts the ions are swapped with no change in oxidation state. In redox reactions, the oxidant lowers oxidation state of it and another reactant, the reductant raises its oxidation state. The outcome is the exchange of electrons.
When one reactant is having atoms of hydrogen, a reaction can occur through the exchange of protons in acid base chemistry. In general we say that, an acid can be any of the chemical species that is capable of combining to electron pairs is known as Lewis acid; conversely any molecule which tends to give an electron pair is known as a Lewis base.
Inorganic compounds are originated as minerals in nature. Soil may include iron sulphide as pyrite or calcium sulphate as gypsum. Inorganic compounds are known as multitasking as biomolecules: as electrolytes (like sodium chloride), in energy storage (ATP) or in construction (polyphosphate backbone in DNA).
The earliest man made inorganic compound was ammonium nitrate for soil fertilization through Haber process. Inorganic compounds are synthesized generally for use as catalysts like vanadium (V) oxide and titanium (III) chloride, or as reagents in organic chemistry such as lithium aluminium hydride.
The sub fields of inorganic chemistry are bioinorganic chemistry, organometallic chemistry, and cluster chemistry. These fields are vigorous areas of research in inorganic chemistry, aimed toward new catalysts and superconductor.
Industrial inorganic chemistry
Inorganic chemistry is an extremely practical field of science. Typically, the scale of a nation's economy can achieve heights by their efficiency of sulphuric acid. The top 20 inorganic chemicals produced in Canada, India, China, Japan, Europe, and the US are aluminium sulphate, ammonium nitrate, ammonia, ammonium sulphate, chlorine, carbon black, hydrogen, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, nitrogen, sulphuric acid, oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, sodium hydroxide, phosphoric acid, sodium silicate, NaCO3 , sodium chlorate, sodium sulphate, and titanium dioxide.
The manufacturing of fertilizers is one more use of industrial inorganic chemistry.
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