Atomic Structure

Atomic Structure:

Progress of Atomic Models:

A) In the year 1803, John Dalton, stated his atomic theory. He recommended that atoms were inseparable solid spheres.

B) J.J.Thomson stated that an atom was a solid sphere of positively charged material and negatively charged particles, electrons were fixed in it like the seeds in a guava. Though later this notion was proved incorrect.

C) Rutherford recommended the planetary model, however this model was discarded.

D) In the year 1913, Neils Bohr stated that electrons revolve around the nucleus in a specific orbit with a particular energy. Based on the facts acquired from spectra of hydrogen atom, he introduced the idea of energy levels of atom.

E) In the year 1916 Sommerfeld modified Bohr’s model by introducing elliptical orbits for electron path. He stated sub energy levels for every main energy level expected by Bohr.

F) The idea of Quantum numbers was introduced to differentiate the orbital on the basis of their shape, size, and orientation in space by utilizing azimuthal principal, magnetic and spin quantum numbers.

G) From the study of quantum numbers, different rules are place forward for filling of electrons in different orbits by following:

  • Aufbau principle
  • Pauli exclusion principle and
  • Hunds rule of maximum multiplicity.

H) In the year 1921 Burry and Bohr provide a scheme for the arrangement of electrons in an atom. Moreover the nature of electrons is studied.


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