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France 1715 to the Present:

France, 1715–89:

The year of 1789 is the great dividing line in the history of modern France. The fall of Bastille, medieval fortress employed as state prison, on July 14, 1789, symbolizes for France, and other nations, the end of the pre-modern era characterized through an religiously and organicist sanctioned traditionalism. Along the French Revolution began the institutionalization of secularized individualism in social life and politics both; rationality and individualism found expression in parliamentary government and written constitutionalism. Apparently, the American and English revolutions of 1688 and 1776 prefigure these changes, however it was the more Universalist French Revolution that placed individualism and rationality squarely at the centre of human concerns.

French Revolution and Napoleon, 1789–1815:

On July 12, 1789, the French journalist who name was Camille Desmoulins incited the people of Paris to invade the arm and arsenals themselves in fear that King Louis XVI was regarding the attack the city. Two days later on, on July 14, the people of Paris attacked the fortress of the Bastille, murdered its defenders and governor, as well as the city's magistrates. This violent event was the starting of fundamental political changes in Europe and France that are known as the French Revolution.

The First French Revolution:

The first phase of the French Revolution from the year 1789-1791 brought about the destruction of royal absolutism. From 1792-95, the second phase destroyed the monarchy and built the French Republic.

The Creation of a New Political Order:

Between August 1789 and September 1790, the National Assembly reorganized French society. It abolished the privileges of the clergy and nobles, the legal jurisdiction of noblemen, game laws, feudal dues, and the privileges of provinces & towns. In its place, now France was composed of equal citizens. The National Assembly issued the Declaration of the Rights of Citizen and Man on August 26, 1789. The Declaration was effected by the Enlightenment and proclaimed the rights to property and liberty, equality before the law, freedom from oppression, & religious toleration to be natural rights. By issuing the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, the Assembly also reorganized the church, which made the church a department of state and made clergy government employees, and ordered the clergy to swear national oath of loyalty. The property of church was seized. In the year of 1791, the Assembly issued a fresh constitution, which made France constitutional monarchy. It also declared all of the citizens equal before the law, close down titles of nobility, & made marriage a civil contract.

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The French Republic, 1792-99:

France experienced an another revolution that replaced the monarchy with a republic after the year of 1792.

The Establishment of the Republic, 1792:

It appeared that the new French government would be a monarchy constitutional as support for a republic came only from the radical Jacobins who drew their support from Parisian lower classes called the sans-culottes, in the first years of the revolution. For undermining the monarchy, King Louis XVI was partly responsible. He never accepted the changes took by the revolution. The last blow to the monarchy came from the pressure of war. the French Legislative Assembly responded to stop an invasion and to maintain the revolution through declaring war on Austria. For France the war went badly and generated a mood of fear that enemies in were undermining the revolution. The radical republicans overthrew the Paris city government and set up a new commune, on August 10, 1791. The Legislative Assembly suspended the monarchy & ordered an elected convention to write down a new constitution. On September 20, 1792A, French victory at Valmy saved the revolution. The new National Convention, elected through universal male suffrage, abolished the monarchy and started writing a new constitution.

The Reign of Terror:

The convention entrusted executive power to deal with the internal enemies, to a Committee of Public Safety led through Robespierre and to prosecute enemies established special courts. To crush opposition they implemented a terror campaign. Over 17,000 persons were executed & another 20,000 were imprisoned or killed without trial between October 1793 and June 1794. In August 1794, a group of moderate Jacobins retaliated plotted against Robespierre & his followers, arrested them, and guillotined them. White Terror’s members, Bourbon supporters, retaliated against the Jacobins & executed leaders of revolutionary tribunals. It brought an end to the most radical and violent phase of the revolution.

The Directory, 1795-1799:

The moderates gained control of government and abolished the Committee of Public security and Paris Commune. They require maintaining traditional forms of authority, and therefore they created the Directory, where by five men governed the country. A two-chamber parliament was established through moderates also .and restricted the franchise to property holders. Shortly, opposition arose from the sans-culottes and radical Jacobins over the growing price of bread. A new coup brought a new government named the Consulate to power. It was dominated through a young general named Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821), who was named First Consul. The government retained its republican form, but in reality, Napoleon was a military dictator.

The Napoleonic Era, 1799-1815:

The Consulate introduced a period of authoritarian rule such as the republic provided way to a dictatorship.

Napoleon's Rise to Power:

On the island of Corsica, Napoleon Bonaparte was born and for his education sent to a French military school. For his rise to prominence, the revolution provided the possibility. He led armies against the federalists and royalists during the terror. In the year of 1796, he became commander of the army of Italy. By nature he was authoritarian and always took a pragmatic approach to troubles. After leading the coup in the year of 1799, he became First Consul. In the year of 1802 he became Consul for Life, and in the year of 1804 crowned himself emperor of the French.

Concordat with the Papacy:

Napoleon signed the Concordat of the year 1801 with Pope Pius VII (r. 1800-1823) to settle the conflict among church. To the property confiscated the pope gave up all claims and state by the revolution, agreed upon the clergy would take an oath of allegiance to the state, and agreed not to appoint bishops with no prior approval of the French government. In switch over, Napoleon recognized Catholic Christianity as the religion of the majority of Frenchmen and agreed to pay the salaries of the clergy.

Napoleon, the Empire, and Europe:

Napoleon also established a massive European Empire. Napoleon gained military victories over Austria, Prussia, Russia, and Spain between 1797 and 1809. By the year of 1809, France controlled the Dutch Republic, the Austrian Netherlands, Spain, Italy and substantial parts of Poland and Germany. From conquered regions Napoleon owed his victories to the vast citizen army he amassed, which was supplemented with soldiers. He was not without defeats, though. At sea he was beaten by the British at the Battle of Trafalgar in the year of 1805. His attempt in the year of 1808 to take control of Spain by making his brother Joseph Bonaparte king proved to be a blunder. Attempt to close monasteries of Spanish and abolish the Inquisition prompted the people to rebel and start guerilla warfare against French. For the meantime, French rule led to the rise of nationalism in Italy and Germany.

The Downfall of Napoleon:

By the year of 1810, negative reactions to Napoleon became extensive. It further encouraged him to seek more military victories and territory only. In the year of 1812, Napoleon started an invasion of Russia. As the Russian army retreat further inland, Napoleon's supply lines became overextended. He found it burned and deserted while he reached Moscow. Facing the Russian winter, he ordered retreat. The retreat was a disaster, along with 380,000 men who starved, froze to death, or deserted. In fortune the change prompted the other European powers to form an alliance and defeat Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig in the year 1813. With the further defeats by the Austrians in Italy and the British in the Spain, Napoleon abdicated in April of the year 1814. The French government was turned over to King Louis XVIII, who is brother of Louis XVI. Louis XVIII restored Bourbons’ White flag and recognized Catholic Christianity as the state religion, but left most of the changes brought by the revolution to the French government unchanged. In spite of Louis XVIII's attempts at conciliation, Napoleon remained very famous. In March of the 1815, he escaped from exile on the island of Elba, and most of the Frenchmen rallied for him. Again the European powers allied against him and beaten him at the Battle of Waterloo. He was exiled to island of St. in the South Atlantic Helena and died there in the year of 1821.

France, 1815–1940:

Ideological Conflict and National, 1815-1871:

In the nineteenth century four new ideologies influenced European politics. They were conservatism, socialism, liberalism & nationalism.

  • Conservatism: protect the Established Order
  • Liberalism: The defense of Individual Freedom
  • Socialism
  • Nationalism

Ideological Encounters in Europe, 1815-1848:

The confrontation of ideologies of the nineteenth century often led to violent political conflict. After the Congress of Vienna, conservatives led by Austrian Chancellor Metternich were resolute to suppress any signs of revolution.

The Liberal Revolt of 1820 in Spain:

King Ferdinand VII returned to power in Spain after the fall of Napoleon. He denied accepting the liberal constitution written by the Spanish Cortes (parliament) in the year of 1812. In the year of 1820 a group of military officers seized power. After that, an army of the Concert of Europe invaded Spain. Restoration of Ferdinand to power signaled a liberal defeat while their leaders were executed and once he again denounced the constitution of the year of 1812.

The Nationalist Revolt of 1821 in Greece:

Nationalism had its earliest success in Greece. The Greeks revolted against the Ottoman Empire in the year of 1821. The Greeks' attack attained support from liberals and conservatives alike. But, western Europeans intervened, as they identified the Greeks along with the foundation of western civilization and the conflict as a struggle among Islam and Christianity. In the year of 1833 the Turks were forced to accept Greek independence.

The Decembrist Revolt of 1825 in Russia:

In Russia the liberal revolt in December of the year of 1825 failed. A group of army officers led a revolt against Tsar Nicholas I (r. 1825-1855) who had served in France. The Decembrists were suppressed as the rebels became known. In the regime of Nicholas I they failed to influence any change

Liberal and Nationalist Revolts, 1830:
A 2nd  group of liberal and nationalist revolts erupted in the early 1830s.

The French Revolutions of 1848:

The first revolution in the year of 1848 took place in Paris. The economic decline led the employees to begin demonstrations calling for the right to vote and government assistance. While the troops of Louis-Philippe killed numerous demonstrators, barricade went up in streets. Louis-Philippe abdicated, & the revolutionaries created the 2nd French Republic. The provisional governments implement universal manhood suffrage and created national workshops to give work to the unemployed. The radical political program was not illustrious, and it allowed the conservatives to gain control in the election of April of the 1848. In June of 1848, when the conservative-dominated National Assembly closed the workshops, riots exploded again. They were crushed this time. Napoleon's nephew, Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte (1808-1873), was elected president in December 1848. He had support from conservatives, liberals, and moderate republicans. In the year of 1851, he proclaimed himself Emperor Napoleon III.

National Unification in Europe and America, 1848-1871:

Prior to the year of 1848, nationalism had only been successful in Belgium and Greece. Nationalist efforts in the year of 1848 had failed to unify the states of Italy and Germany. Between 1848 and 1871, the situation changed, and in Italy nationalist efforts succeeded, Germany, and the United States. In the Habsburg Empire, unity was attained, although nationalism did not prevail.

The Coming of Mass Politics: Industrialization, Enfranchisement, and Instability, 1870-1914:

Ideological competition among conservatism, socialism, liberalism, & nationalism directed the Western political culture. After the year of 1870, economic developments further heightened tensions. More & more individuals demanded the right to political participation. Economic development and the emergence of mass politics failed to make sure complete democratic success. Conflicts among those who demanded a voice in government and those who wanted to stop their accession during this time period into politics proliferated

The First World War:

On the morning of July 1, 1916 in northern France the British soldiers began the first attack of the Battle of the Somme. 20,000 British soldiers were dead and 40,000 were wounded by the end of the day. On November 18, 1916, by the time the battle ended 420,000 British soldiers and 200,000 French soldiers were dead or wounded. There were 450,000 casualties on the German side. At the battle of Verdun, the Germans  and French suffered 750,000 casualties, and at the Battle of the Gallipoli, the New Zealand  and Australian forces experienced a casualty rate of 65%. 37 million men were casualties-killed, wounded, & missing-in the battles of World War I between 1914 and 1918. These massive numbers were the product of the Industrial Revolution that gave the killing instruments of the artillery, machine gun and poison gas.

The End of the War:

In spite of the Ottoman losses in Germany, the Middle East remained in a winning position at the beginning of the year of 1918. In Eastern Europe, Germany had made huge gains; Russia had dropped out of the war and was undergoing a revolution, whereas Serbia and Romania were occupied.

Back in Motion: The Western Front in 1918:

In March of 1918, the Germans rapidly broke through the lines in surprise attacks and attained in 50 miles of Paris. The Allies followed suit along with similar tactics reinforced with American troops, and start up pushing the Germans back, specifically with the new, advanced technology of the tank. The Germans' fast advance overextended their manpower and supply lines. In October, the armies of the Ottoman and Austrian Empires and Bulgaria collapsed, and on November 11, 1918, Germany signed an armistice

The Great Depression and the Spread of Fascism after 1929:

As the Great Depression spread out through Europe, fascist movements started in approximately every country. The Depression started with the New York stock market crash in the year of 1929. During World War I, the U.S. became the financial center of the world. U.S. loans make it possible for Germany to pay reparations to Britain and France, which in turn let them to pay their U.S. loans, after the war. With the crash, American investors ended making loans to Germany, which started domino influence, bringing the other economies down. The Great Depression enhanced the appeal of fascist movements with their promises of stability, order, and national strength.

World War II:

Twenty years after the end of World War I, Europe & the world were again engulfed in total war. In Eastern Europe the immediate cause was Hitler's wish for a German empire.

Europe at War, 1939-1941:

On September 1, 1939, Germany invaded Poland. Almost the entire continent was either allied or occupied by Nazi Germany by the autumn of 1941.

France since 1940:

The World at War, 1941-1945:

Japan attacked the United States and the European colonies in Southeast Asia, turning the war into global conflict, in December 1941. From the beginning World War II involved people outside of Europe. Britain relied on materials and manpower from the dominions and colonies. Although the U.S. was neutral officially till December of 1941, it had been supplying goods to the British since March under the Lend-Lease Act. Japan attacked the U.S. Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941and over the next few days attacked the British, American and Dutch colonies in Southeast Asia. Germany also declared war on the U.S On December 11, 1941.

The fall of Germany:

The Allies invaded Italy in July 1943. Though Mussolini was overthrown, the Germans hold control of Italy and the allied campaign got bogged down till the year of 1944. The American and English forces began the invasion of France on June 6, 1944. For the next ten months, the Allies engaged in complex but victorious battles. On May 2, Berlin surrendered to the Russians. Hitler had committed suicide two days earlier. Formally Germany surrendered to the allies on May 7, 1945.

A Dubious Peace, 1945-1949:

At the end of the war, much of Europe was a rubble heap. After 1945, Post-war purges and deportations continued.

Devastation, Death, and Continuing War:

An estimated 55 million had been killed by the end of the war. The death toll continued as the victors inflicted vengeance on the beaten. Over 11 million Germans were deported from the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Poland was given part of eastern Germany and expelled there the Germans living. Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Romania and Hungary also expelled Germans living in their territories. As several as two million Germans died in the forced deportation. To relieve ethnic divisions, governments deported ethnic minorities in Eastern Europe. Forced deportation, guerilla warfare, and civil wars all of the demonstrated the continuation of the fighting of the Second World War.

The Cold War Begins, 1946-1949:

The issue of Germany led to the collapse of the war-time alliances. The Americans and British decided to provide priority to German economic recovery. They joined their zones to a single economic unit and stopped reparations payment to the Soviet Union. In the year of 1947, the United States started the policy of containment to resist communist expansion along with the introduction of the Marshall Plan and Truman Doctrine. The Truman Doctrine promised to provide aid to the countries resisting subjugation. For the economic recovery of Europe the Marshall Plan provided aid. The Soviet Union denial to participate in the Marshall Plan and forced other eastern European countries to refuse aid. In the year of 1949, the U.S. and nine west European nations formed NATO as military alliance to block Soviet expansion. In the year of 1949, the Soviet Union tested its first nuclear bomb and in the year of 1955 the east European and Soviet Union countries formed the Warsaw Pact. Once again Europe was divided among hostile military blocs, now armed along with nuclear weapons.

Changing Temperatures in the Cold War, 1953-1970:

In the year of 1953, the Eisenhower administration committed the U.S. to roll back communism & threatened nuclear retaliation against communist aggression. For his work, Khrushchev convinced allies and superiority foes of the Soviet nuclear. By Eisenhower and Khrushchev the realization that nuclear war made total war unwinnable, led both sides to discover alternative ways to combat the Cold War. From 1954 to 1964This realization led to a period of thawed tensions followed by renewed hostilities. For instance, in Geneva the first summit of the Cold War was held to negotiate, but this bridge-building among west and east was interrupted in the year of 1956 by the Soviet invasion of Hungary, and in the year of 1957 with the Soviets' successful launch of the satellite Sputnik. In the year of 1958, the Soviets voluntarily agreed to postpone nuclear testing. In the year of 1960, the Soviets shot down an American spy plane, and this event brought the west and east closes to war dangerously. Both sides enhanced military spending. Most of the people expected the city of Berlin to be the starting point for a nuclear war. In the year of 1961, the East Germany and Soviet Union decided to stop the crossing and build the Berlin Wall around the western zone.

Diversity and Dissent in Eastern Europe1956 and After:

In Eastern Europe several states developed along distinct parts in spite of the uniformity imposed by Soviet-style communist regimes. In Poland, protests in the year of 1956 brought back to power Wladislaw Gomulka, who had been purged in the year of 1951. He abandoned collectivization, but in the Warsaw Pact kept Poland. In Hungary the de-Stalinization reforms under Imre Nagy slowed down collectivization and industrialization. While Hungary attempted to leave the Warsaw Pact, however, Soviet troops invaded & crushed all of the resistance. Nagy's successor, Janos Kadar, who had been purged by Stalin, let greater economic freedom and initiative than other eastern European countries. Romania gained experience one-person dictatorships under Gheorghe Nicolae Ceausescu & Gheorghiu-Dej. Except in Romania, the standard of living developed, there was greater accessibility of consumer goods, and educational chances enhanced.

The 1970s: A More Certain Era

The 1970s signaled easing of Cold War tensions plus the end of postwar affluence.

The Era of Detente:

West European leaders opened diplomatic and economic relations with the Soviet Union and its satellites. After the year of 1969, the new West German Chancellor named Willy Brandt, initiated a new Ostpolitik with the east. In the year of 1972, West and East Germany recognized each other's legitimacy, and in the year of 1973 both joined the UN. Raising economic problems in both superpowers led them to embrace détente as an effort to stabilize superpower relations. In 1972 they agreed to the Strategic Arms restriction Talks (SALT), freezing the weapons at the current balance. The similar period witnessed the division of the communist world. China & the Soviet Union were at odds over Mao Zedong's industrialization programs.

The 1980s: The End of Consensus in the West:

The economic crisis challenged postwar political supposition that the government must own key industries and take duty for full employment and provide welfare services.

From Detente to Renewed Cold War, 1975-1985:

The detente policies of the early year of 1970s were reversed in the late year of 1970s, and Cold War tensions returned. Detente's triumph came in the year of 1975 while the Canada U.S. and European nations signed the Helsinki Accords, identifying the existing borders and promising to safeguard human rights. Human rights issues damaged U.S.-Soviet relations. In 1979 the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan undermined detente. Instantly, U.S. President Jimmy Carter cut cultural and economic links to the Soviet Union and enhanced military spending. The New Conservatives in the early year of 1980s enhanced the Cold War tensions by enhancing the arms build-up and deciding to organize nuclear weapons in countries of European. The renewal of the Cold War & NATO's deployment of nuclear weapons caused protests to fill the streets of various European cities.

From Success to Failure: The Disintegration of the Soviet Union:

By the year of 1990, Gorbachev had ended the Cold War and brought about modification in Eastern Europe along little bloodshed, but in bringing prosperity he had not succeeded to the Soviet Union. Food & other goods remained scarce and had fallen productivity. He was facing severe opposition through hard-line communists opposed to his reforms and from liberal reforms that felt his policies were not going far enough. In August 1991, the hard-liners try to overthrow him. Russian president named Boris Yeltsin led the resistance that beaten the coup. By the end of the year of 1991, the rising tied of nationalism between the ethnic groups undermined the Soviet Union and the country broke apart. Gorbachev resigned as president of a country that no longer existed on December 25, 1991.

Nationalism replaced the capitalist-communist struggle. President Yeltsin applied shock therapy to the economy in Russia, but it stayed to get worse. Russia went bankrupt in 1998. Whereas managers of state industries became rich while these industries were privatized, the majority of Russians were poor. The ending of Soviet subsidies undermined their economy in several of the former Soviet republics. Russia and many other Soviet republics experienced civil wars. Chechnya’s demanded independence in Russia. In the Russian Presidents Yeltsin and Putin kept Chechnya federation but only by fighting bloody wars.

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