History of Africa:
The history of Africa starts along with the prehistory of Africa and the emergence of Homo sapiens in East Africa, ongoing into the current as a patchwork of different and politically developing nation states.
Scientists think that Africa was the birthplace of mankind. Through 100,000 BC modern humans lived through hunting and gathering along with stone tools. By Africa they spread to Europe.
From 5,000 farming had spread to North Africa. People herded cattle and they grew crops. Now the Sahara Desert was not a desert. This was a green and fertile region. Slowly it developed drier and turned into a desert.
Meanwhile about 3,200 BC writing was invented in Northeast Africa, within Egypt. This is occasionally forgotten that one of the world's oldest and greatest civilizations was African. The Egyptians created tools and weapons of bronze. Conversely by the time Egyptian civilization arose most of Africa was cut off from Egypt and the other early civilizations through the Sahara Desert. Africa was also hampered through its lack of good harbors that made transport through sea complex.
Farmers in Africa continued to utilize stone tools and weapons conversely about 600 BC the utilization of iron spread in North Africa. This is gradually spread south and from 500 AD iron tools and weapons had reached what is at this time South Africa.
In 814 BC the Phoenicians from what is now Lebanon determined the city of Carthage in Tunisia. At the battle of Zama, Carthage later battled wars along with Rome and during 202 BC the Romans defeated the Carthaginians. In 146 BC Rome demolished the city of Carthage and made its territory part of their empire.
Meanwhile Egyptian influence spread along the kingdoms and the Nile of Nubian and Kush arose in what is at this time Sudan. From 100 AD the kingdom of Axum in Ethiopia was highly civilized. Axum traded along with India, Arabia and Rome. Axum turned into Christian in the 4th century AD.
Meanwhile the Roman Empire continued to develop. In 30 BC Egypt turned into a province of Rome. Morocco was absorbed in 42 AD. Conversely the rest of Africa was cut off from Rome through the Sahara Desert.
Africa in the middle ages:
During the 642 the Arabs defeated Egypt. In 698-700 they took Tunis and Carthage and rapidly they controlled all of the coast of North Africa. The Arabs were Muslims, obviously, and almost immediately the whole coast of North Africa transformed to Islam. Ethiopia kept Christian but this was cut off from Europe through the Muslims.
After 800 AD organized kingdoms involve in northern Africa. They traded along with the Arabs further north. Trade along with the Arabs led to the increase of Islam to the other parts of Africa. Arab merchants brought luxury salt and goods. In return they purchased slaves and gold from the Africans.
One of the earliest African kingdoms was Ghana. This comprised parts of Mali and Mauritania and also the modern country of Ghana. From the 9th century Ghana was termed as the land of gold. Conversely, Ghana was vanishes in the 11th century through Africans from further north.
From the 11th century the city of Ife in Southwest Nigeria was the capital of a huge kingdom. By the 12th century craftsmen from Ife created terracotta bronze and sculptures heads. Conversely by the 16th century Ife was declining.
The other African state was Benin. The medieval empire of Benin was bigger than the new country. By the 13th century Benin was powerful and rich. Meanwhile the kingdom of Mali was determined in the 13th century. From the 14th century Mali was powerful and rich. Its cities comprised Timbuktu that was a busy trading centre where gold, horses, salt and slaves were sold. Conversely, the kingdom of Mali was vanished by Songhai in the 16th century.
Songhai was a kingdom located east of Mali on the River Niger by the 14th century to the 16th century. Songhai reached a peak regarding 1500 AD. Conversely, in 1591 they were conquered from the Moroccans and their kingdom broke up. The other great North African state was Kanem-Bornu, situated near Lake Chad. Kanem-Bornu rose to prominence in the ninth century and this remained independent until the 19th century.
Meanwhile the Arabs sailed down also the east coast of Africa. Several of them settled there and they determined states as Mogadishu. They settled also on Zanzibar. Inland several people in southern Africa made organized kingdoms. Regarding to 1430 impressive stone buildings were raised at Great Zimbabwe.
Meanwhile in the Middle Ages Ethiopia flourished. The popular church of St George was build about 1200.
Meanwhile the Portuguese were exploring the coast of Africa. In the 1431 they reached the Azores. After that in 1445 they reached the mouth of the River Congo. At last in 1488 the Portuguese sailed around the Cape of Good Hope.
In the 16th century Europeans started to transport African slaves across the Atlantic. Conversely slavery was nothing modern in Africa. For centuries Africans had sold the other Africans to the Arabs as slaves. Yet the trans-Atlantic slave trade grew till it was huge.
In the 18th century ships from Britain obtained manufactured goods to Africa. They obtained slaves from there to the West Indies and obtained sugar back to Britain. It was known as the Triangular Trade. Several the other European countries were concerned in the slave trade.
Some Africans were sold in slavery since they had committed a crime. Conversely, several slaves were captured in raids through the other Africans. Europeans were not permitted to travel inland to determine slaves. As an alternative Africans brought slaves to the coast. Some slaves who were not sold were either killed or utilized as slaves through the other Africans. The slave trade would have been not possible without the collaboration of Africans several of whom grew rich on the slave trade.
Meanwhile from the 16th to the 18th centuries Barbary pirates from the North African coast robbed Portuguese and Spanish ships.During the 16th century a people termed as the Turks conquered mostly of the North African coast. During the 1517 they captured Egypt and through 1556 mainly of the coast were in their hands.
Additionally South Africans continued to make powerful kingdoms. The kingdom of Kanem-Bornu expanded in the 16th century utilizing guns bought from the Turks. Conversely, in the 16th century Ethiopia declined in power and significance though it survived.
Meanwhile the Europeans determined their first colonies in Africa. During the 16th century the Portuguese settled in Mozambique and Angola while in 1652 the Dutch founded a colony in South Africa.
During the 19th century European states tried to stop the slave trade. Britain banned the slave trade in year 1807. Alternatively, in the late 19th century Europeans colonized most of Africa!
In 1814 the British acquired the Dutch colony in South Africa. In 1830 the French invaded northern Algeria. Conversely, colonization only turned into serious in the late 19th century while Europeans 'carved up' Africa. In 1884 the Germans acquired Togo and Namibia, Cameroon and in 1885 they acquired Tanzania. In 1885 Belgium took over what is at this time, Democratic Republic of Congo. The French took Madagascar in year 1896. They also expanded their kingdom in northern Africa. In 1912 they acquired Morocco and Italy acquired Libya. In 1914 the British took control of Egypt. From then all of Africa was in European hands except Ethiopia and Liberia. The Italians invaded Ethiopia in 1896 but they were conquered through the Ethiopians.
Further south the British acquired Zimbabwe, Malawi, Zambia, Kenya and Uganda. The British also acquired control of Egypt. Angola and Mozambique kept Portuguese.
Conversely, in the early 20th century attitudes to imperialism start to modify in Europe. Moreover in Africa churches provided schools and raising numbers of Africans turned into educated. They turned into impatient for independence. The movement for African independence turned as not stoppable and in the late 1950s and 1960s most African countries turned into independent. In 1960 alone 17 countries gained their independence. Conversely, Mozambique and Angola did not turn into independent till 1975.
Still the newly independent states were frequently failures. Several suffered civil wars and brutal dictators as Idi Amin. Today most of Africa keeps very poor. One basis is corruption on a massive scale. Many African rulers bled their countries dry and made them extremely rich.
The other reason is gross economic mismanagement. During the 1970s Socialist policies proved disastrous in countries as Tanzania and Zambia while in the 2000s Robert Mugabe wrecked the Zimbabwean economy.
Africa also suffered severely from the AIDs pandemic.
Conversely, this was not all bad news. Botswana is one African achievement story. Moreover several African countries have at this time adopted market economies. Along with the right policies there is expectation for Africa.
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