China has an earliest history that stretches from 2200 B.C. to the recent. It currently has the largest population, the third biggest economic system, and possibly the most potential for social reform. Firstly, we are going to explains China’s history from its origins until now. History has directly shaped the manner that new China views the world. This comprises religion, education, politics, social structure and economics systems. After that we are going to analyze China’s different structures and how they function. Firstly to understand anything related to China, one should first understand, China has some ancient religions as Taoism, Confucianism and the other indigenous religions and China’s long history is what influences its belief systems.
Its history begins all along with the Xia, Zhou and Shang “dynasties”. This is significant to notice that the Xia, Zhou and Shang have been thought of by some scholars as coexisting throughout the similar timeframe. The duration of all groups however, mark the dominance of one group over the other. The Xia ruled from Xia c. 2200 to c. 1750 BC. As per to An Zhimin, not much is identify about the Xia, and up until recent archaeological evidence, some had believed them to be a myth in 199. They were recognized for their black lacquered pottery. Alongside this little is identified about them other than which they had a writing system which mostly like led to the Shang Dynasty’s oracle bones.
The Shang was the most advanced bronze workers of their day. They ruled from c. 1750 to c. 1040 BC. Mainly their art had many bronze jars termed as “p’ou” as per to Stephen Guglielmi as 3 to 10. They also are the first record of Chinese writing which was possibly most complete. One thing we understand from these writing is that they were possibly the most blood thirsty previously modern civilization. If a king were to die so they would also sacrifice a hundred or so of his servants with him. They also would sustain human sacrifices to consecrate buildings and the other ceremonial events. The ways for sacrifice ranged from beheading to burying alive. They passed away the kingship not from father to his son, or from brother to his brother till there were no any brothers after that went to the oldest maternal nephew.
The Western Zhou from c. 1100-771 BC, was much dissimilar than the Shang. For one, they weren’t bigger on human sacrifice. For the other, they weren’t as good at bronze working like the Shang. Despite this, they were still ages prior to western civilizations at bronze working. And also they passed on the kingship patrilineally. As per to Li Feng, the Zhou functioned less as an empire, and most likely a people group along with servants. Actually, the Zhou didn’t own all of what is today China, rather they were west of the center of China, thus “Western Zhou”
From 771-256 BC the Easter Zhou has their kingdom, was attacked through barbarians and was forced to move eastward. Due to this geographical shift, their power declined also. This length of Zhou Rule is marked through two periods, the “autumn and spring Period” and the “Warring States Period. The “Spring and Autumn” period from 722 to 481 BC acquires its name from a book termed as “The Spring and Autumn Annals”. This period was rich along with philosophy and modern ideas. From this era we distinguish the beginning of Taoism, Legalism and Confucianism. These three will be conversed later. The Warring States duration from 403 to 221 BC is marked through large scale catastrophic battles. As per to historical information, this is common to determine armies of nearly half a million going at it. Sieges which lasted years devastated China and led China from their basis to the early kingdom era.
The Early Empire:
This period begins along with the age of the Qin from 221 to 206 BC that also marks the beginning of Chinese emperors and thus empires. Qin Shihuangdi was the primary emperor and conquered the uncombined China because of his legalism and cruel practices. The other purpose his conquest was so successful was which in the “iron age” he had a large amount of iron and thus had more iron weapons than his opponents. One of his main strategies was linking together old defensive walls in a form of great wall. It is not the similar as the great wall that stands today. Qin died, marking an end to his short lived regulation His line did not endure mostly due to his cruel practices which curtailed his rule and led to a revolt. It gave manner to the Han.
The Han dynasty wrote most of China’s history, thus our current perspectives on China’s history is mostly seen by their eyes. This is significant to notice that the Han are considered through most scholars to be the greatest Chinese dynasty to still exist. The Han dynasty perfected the “dynasty roles” that every successive dynasty would obey. The Earlier Han dynasty and the Later Han dynasty are separated merely through a brief intermission through a man named Wang Mang who had no royal blood. The Han family line after that took back control and reigned for the other two hundred years. At the final of their rule they could not maintain the nation divided because of population shifts and barbarian raiders. Their fall marks the starts of 350 years of disunity and chaos.
After that is the time period of the Three Kingdoms from 220 to 265 and Dynasties of the North and South from 317 to 589. Not many major things happened throughout this time period. The Hans moved south and the Barbarians moved north marking a main divide in China. And also this, Buddhism began to move over from India taking predominance over Confucianism. Throughout this time Taoism and Buddhism began to merge though Buddhism never actually overcame Taoism.
The Second Empire:
The Sui dynasty from 589 to 618 starts the “Second Empire”. The Sui dynasty was from the North and hence Barbarians. Conversely their dynasty was short lived, this succeeded in re-unifying China. Although the Sui was not fully Han they are until now considered to be Chinese not like the later Mongols and the Manchu.
The Tang dynasty from 618 to 907 is considered through several historians as the second greatest dynasty beside the Hans. They conquered a vast portion of land that entailed modern Vietnam, Korea, Siberia and parts of India leading to Afghanistan. They had also the merely woman Empress in the history of China, Empress Wu. She was manipulative and a cruel woman who murdered her own son to secure her throne. At last, the An Lushan rebellion was the last stone in the dissolution of power however the dynasty lasted the other 150 years or so. The rebellion occurred as an emperor, Xuangong, fell in love along with a concubine, Yang Guifei, who manipulated him and utilized a general to try to overthrow him. Xuangong was forced to flee by the capital, and his manipulative concubine, Yang, was strangled to death.
The Song dynasty is also ranked up close the top all along with the Tang and the Han dynasty. They directed to reunite China. And also this they were identified for their agricultural inventions. Although their dynasty didn’t final, their agricultural methods were used up to the starting of the twentieth century. Several of those methods are still utilized today. Because of their self-sufficient system for agriculture, China appeared static as the other countries around them began to expand technology. They basically had the man power and thus saw no require creating inventions to assist them work better. At last, the Song fell apart due to their lack of political or military strength.
Subsequently is the period of the Yuan or Mongol dynasty (1279-1368). It is essential to notice that while Mongols ruled in China, this was much more of a profession than anything. They were not Chinese and they did not speak Chinese. They did although utilization several of the existing political structures for their own government. Throughout this time period we have Marco Polo working along with the Mongol Empire. The other significant figure of this era was Khubilai Khan who extended the Great Canal. Because of the Mongol empire simply permitting Mongols to rule, China began to extend their arts. This duration also offers rise to Neo-Confucianism.
The Ming dynasty from 1368 to 1644 is marked through psychotic leadership. As per to most historians over 40,000 people in each was executed in connection to case of a rebellious prime minister. They fortified also the great wall, construct the Forbidden City, moved the capital to Beijing, and acquired Macao to the Portuguese. The fall of the Ming dynasty provided method to what we termed as “modern” China.
During the 1644 the Manchu’s took over China and established the Qing or Manchu dynasty from 1644 to 1911. Throughout this time period China closed itself off from outward power. They rejected western consideration and moved back towards a legalistic approach. Because of this the West and China were in bitter dispute among each other. The Qing dynasty gradually collapsed because of this schism and after that WWI occurred.
After that there is Republican China from 1911 till 1949. Within WWI China sided along with the allies and was promised which in return, the German occupied territory in China would be returned to them. Although, this never arisen. Conversely at the end of the war China was handed over to Japan in the Versailles treaty. In protest a huge amount of Nationalists headed through the Chinese Communist Party or CCP succeeded in unifying the nation. One time this was accomplished, the leader at the time, Chiang who had just been utilizing the Chinese Communist Party as a puppet beginning massacring the Chinese Communist Party. One individual who prevented this massacre was Mao Zedong. The Chinese Communist Party was all but defeated and after that Japan invaded. Japan massacred China and laid waste to its coastal cities, due to this Chiang and the Nationalists weren’t capable to focus on Mao and the Chinese Communist Party so much. After that WWII broke out and the Chinese Communist Party took that time to secure northern China. The Nationalists were weakened through Japan and at the ending of the war the in between the Chinese Communist Party and the Nationalists resumed. Although, because of corruption and the weakness of the Nationalists, Mao was capable to seize power and declare China like The PRC that is People’s Republic of China.
During the 1950 The People’s Republic of China from 1949 to current intervened in the Korean War to save North Korea and ended the fighting. Mao then began what he termed, “the great leap forward” that led to the starvation of the masses and loss of 30 million people. The government blamed this on bad weather. During the 1966, Mao commenced the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution that began from his adoption of Marxist Philosophy. It led to the formation of the Red Guard that effectively led China in a short duration of anarchy. Mass scale riots broke out and the Red Guard fought another. One purpose that Mao was capable to pull off the revolution was because of his status as emperor god. The other reason was due to People’s Liberation Army support spearheaded through Lin Biao. Lin Biao was evidently going to be Mao’s heir, however that soon began to vanish and this wasn’t long until Lin went missing. Many believe that Mao had him murdered, but in the official report he died in a plane crash. While Mao died in 1976, Deng Xiaoping emerged like the leader. Deng started economic reforms, starting with agriculture. During the 1982, seeing Deng’s progress, Margaret Thatcher decided to hand over Hong Kong to China. Hong Kong wasn’t actually consulted on the matter. Political form was after that sought, however the Communist party saw it as an attack on their power and murdered at least 200 unarmed protesters although unofficially the numbers may be much higher. Deng after that stopped reform for three years and after that in 1993 China’s economy unexpectedly exploded. He had handed power to Jiang Zemin (1992) and his death didn’t cause a mad grab for a successor. Jiang began working along with the media and foreign relations to try to reach out to the world for economic success. He succeeded in bringing China in improved economic relations and was succeeded through Hu Jintao. Hu Jintao is the current leader of People’s Republic of China. He is supposedly working with welfare reform and has had to deal along with the SARS epidemic. He is controlling the media of censorship, specifically internet censorship. Anything concerning to political criticism is immediately censored out. Outside of the strict censorship policies he is usually concerned also liked through Chinese nationals.
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