Intermolecular Forces

Intermolecular Forces:

The ionic, covalent and coordinate bond occurs due to attractive forces among atoms. Vander Waal (i.e., Dutch physicist, 1873) was the first one to introduce the existence of attractive forces among the atoms of inert gases with fully filled orbitals. Such forces also exist among non-polar molecules and also polar molecules. The attractive interactions among the molecules are responsible for bringing the molecules close altogether. The attractive interactions among different molecule of a substance are termed as intermolecular forces. The magnitude of such forces is maximum in the solids and reduces on passing from solid to liquid and from liquid to gaseous state. Vander Waal successfully demonstrated the liquefaction of gases on the basis of inter molecular forces. Such forces are purely electrostatic and therefore physical in nature.

Intermolecular forces are the force of attraction or repulsion that execute among neighboring particles (i.e., atoms, molecules or ions). They are weak as compared to the intramolecular forces, the forces that keep a molecule altogether. For illustration, the covalent bond existed within HCl molecules is more stronger than the forces existed  among the neighbouring molecules, that is present whenever the molecules are sufficiently close to one another.

Intermolecular forces are applied by molecules on each other and that, in common, affect the macroscopic properties of the material of which the molecules are a segment. These forces might be either attractive or repulsive in nature. They are conveniently sub-divided into two groups:

short-range forces, that operate if the centers of the molecules are separated by 3 angstroms or less, and long-range forces, that operate at bigger distances. Usually, when molecules do not tend to interact chemically, the short-range forces among them are repulsive. such forces occur from interactions of the electrons related with the molecules and are also termed as exchange forces. Molecules which interact chemically have attractive exchange forces; these are also termed as valence forces.

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