Political Geography

Political Geography:

This geography is a branch of human geography and also the branch of geography associated along with understanding the world's culture and how it concerns to geographic space which studies the spatial distribution of political processes and how these processes are impacted through ones geographic location. This frequently studies national and local elections, international associations and the political structure of various areas based upon geography.

Political geography covers each aspect of boundaries, international organizations, state, country voting and nation development, internal divisions, diplomacy, and many more.

History of Political Geography:

The developments of political geography start along with the growth of human geography since a separate geographic discipline from physical geography. Early human geographers frequently studied a nation or particular location's political development based upon physical landscape attributes. Within several areas the landscape was considered to either assist or hinder the political and economic success and thus the development of nations. Individual of the earliest geographers to study this association was Friedrich Ratzel. During 1897 his book, Politische Geographie, examined the concept that nations developed politically and geographically while their cultures also expanded and that nations required to continue to grow hence their cultures would have enough room to grow.

The other early theory in such geography was the heartland theory. During 1904, a British geographer, Halford Mackinder, developed political theory in his article, "The Geographical Pivot of History." Since a part of political theory Mackinder said as world would be divided in a Heartland comprising Eastern Europe, a World Island made up of Africa and Eurasia, Peripheral Islands, and the New World. Halford Mackinder’s theory said that whoever controlled the heartland would control the world.

Both Mackinder's and Ratzel theories remained significant before and throughout World War II. Through the time of the Cold War their theories and the significance of political geography started to decline and the other fields inside human geography started to grow. In the late 1970s conversely, political geography again started to develop. Now day’s political geography is identified one of the most significant branches of human geography and various geographers study a variety of fields related along with political geography and processes.

Fields within Political Geography:

A few of the fields inside today's political geography comprise but are not restricted to the study and mapping of elections and their outcomes, the link between the government at the state, federal and local level and its people, the signature of political boundaries, and the links between nations concerned in international supranational political groupings as the European Union.

Modern political developments also have an impact on political geography and in current years sub-topics focused upon these developments have developed inside political geography. It is referred as critical political geography and consists political geography focused upon ideas correlated to feminist groups and matters gay and lesbian and too youth communities.

Illustrations of Research in Political Geography:

Due to the varied fields inside political geography there are various recent and past political geographers. Several of the most popular geographers to study political geography were: John A. Agnew, Halford Mackinder, Richard Hartshorne, Ellen Churchill Semple and Friedrich Ratzel.

Nowadays political geography is also a specialty group inside the Association of American Geographers and there is an academic journal termed as Political Geography. Several titles from current articles in this journal comprise "Redistricting and the Elusive Ideals of Representation," "Climate Triggers: Vulnerability, Rainfall Anomalies and Communal Conflict in Sub-Saharan Africa," and "Demographic Realities and Normative Goals."

Critical political geography:

This geography is mostly related along with the criticism of traditional political geographies through modern trends. As along with much of the shift towards 'Critical geographies', the arguments have drawn largely from post-structural, post-modern and post-colonial theories. Illustrations:

Feminist geography: it argues for recognition of the power associations as patriarchal and attempts to theories optional conceptions of identity and identity politics. Beside related concerns as Youth studies and Queer theory.

Postcolonial theories: it identified the Imperialistic, universalizing nature of more political geography, particularly in Development geography.

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