Personality Theory

Personality Theory:


Personality is built up the characteristic patterns of feelings, thoughts & behaviors that make a person unique. Personality arises through in the individual & remains fairly consistent throughout life.

Components of Personality:

Whereas there are several different theories of personality, the primary step is to understand exactly what is meant via the term personality. A short definition would be that personality is built up of the characteristic patterns of feelings, thoughts & behaviors that make a person unique. Additionally to this, personality arises from in the individual & remains fairly consistent throughout life.

Some basic characteristics of personality include following:

Consistency - Generally there is a recognizable order and regularity to behaviors. Fundamentally, people act in the similar ways or similar ways in a variety of condition.

Psychological and physiological - Personality is a psychological construct; however research recommends that it is also influenced by biological procedure and needs.

It impacts behaviors and actions - Personality does not just affected how we move and respond in our environment; it also causes us to act in particular ways.

Multiple expressions - Personality is displayed in more than only behavior. It can also be seen in our feelings, thoughts, close relationships and other social interactions.

Personality theory:

Personality theory is an effort to describe how people are different, how people are similar, and why every individual is unique.
The goals of personality theories are following:

•    Organize the characteristics of personality
•    Describe personality variability [similarities & differences]
•    Defined the normal, healthy personality

Theories of Personality:

A number of distinct theories have emerged to describe different aspects of personality. Some of the theories focus on describing how personality develops whereas others are concerned along with individual differences in personality. The following are only a few of the major theories of personality proposed through different psychologists:

Type theory:

These are the early perspectives on personality. These theories recommend that there are a limited number of "personality types" that are associated to biological influences.

Possibly the earliest known theory of personality is that of the Greek physician Hippocrates who characterized human behavior in four temperaments, each linked with a distinct bodily fluid, or "humor." The sanguine, or optimistic, kind was linked with blood; the phlegmatic type (slow & lethargic) along with phlegm; the melancholic type (sad, depressed) along with black bile; and the choleric (angry) type  along with yellow bile.

Trait Theories:

Trait theories viewed personality as the consequence of internal characteristics that are genetically based.

Gordon Allport's dispositional perspective:

Well-known trait theorist Gordon Allport (1897-1967) broadly investigated the ways in which traits combine to compose normal personalities, cataloguing over 18,000 distinct traits over a period of 30 years. He proposed that each of the people has about seven central traits that dominate his / her behavior. Allport's try to make trait analysis more manageable and useful by simplifying it was expanded via subsequent researchers, who found a ways to group traits to clusters via a procedure known as factor analysis. Raymond B. Cattell decresed Allport's extensive list to sixteen fundamental groups of inter-related characteristics

Hans Eysenck's three-trait model:

Hans Eysenck claimed that personality could be explained through three fundamental factors: psychoticism (such antisocial traits as cruelty & rejection of social customs), introversion-extroversion, and emotionality-stability (also called neuroticism). Eysenck also formulated a quadrant based on intersecting emotional-stable and introverted-extroverted axes.

Myers-Briggs Types:

Depend on the answers to the questions on the inventory; people are recognized as having one of sixteen personality kinds. The goal of the MBTI is to let respondents to further explore and understand their own personalities involving their dislikes, likes strengths, weaknesses, possible career preferences and compatibility along with other people. No one personality kind is "best" or "better" than any other one. It isn't a tool designed to look for abnormality c or dysfunction. Rather, its targets are simply to help you learn more regarding yourself.

The test itself is builkt up of four different scales:

Extraversion (E) - Introversion (I): The extraversion-introversion dichotomy was primary explored by Jung in his theory of personality kinds as a way to defined how people respond and interact along with the world around them. Whereas these terms are familiar to most of the people, the way in which they are utilized here differs somewhat from their famous usage. Extraverts are "outward-turning" and tend to be action-oriented, enjoy more common social interaction & feel energized after spending time with other people. Introverts are "inward-turning" & tend to be thought-oriented, enjoy deep & meaningful social interactions and sense recharged after spending time alone. We all exhibit introversion and extraversion to some degree, however most of us tend have whole preference for one or the other.

Sensing (S) - Intuition (N): It scale involves looking at how people collect information from the world around them. Just like with introversion and extraversion, all of the people spend some time sensing and intuiting based on the situation. According to the MBTI, people tend be dominant in one area or the other. People who prefer feeling tend to pay a vital deal of attention to reality, specifically to what they can study from their own senses. They tend to targets on facts and details and enjoy getting hands-on experience. Those people who prefer intuition give more notice to things like patterns and impressions. They enjoy thinking regarding imagining, possibilities the future and abstract theories.

Thinking (T) - Feeling (F): This scale targets on how people make decisions depends on the information that they collected from their sensing or intuition functions. People who prefer thinking place a superior emphasis on objective data and facts. They tend to be consistent, logical and impersonal while weighing a decision. Those to feeling are more likely to supposed people and emotions while arriving at a conclusion.

Judging (J) - Perceiving (P): The ultimate scale involves how people tend to deal along with the outside world. Those who lean to judging prefer structure & firm decisions. People who lean to perceiving are more open, adaptable and flexible. These two tendencies interact along with the other scales. Remember, all of the people at least spend some time extraverting. The judging-perceiving scale helps defined whether you extravert while you are taking in new information (sensing and intuiting) or while you are making decisions (thinking & feeling).

"Big Five" Personality Dimensions:

The "big five" are extensive categories of personality traits. Whereas there is a significant body of literature supporting it five-factor model of personality, researchers don't agree on the exact labels for each dimension always. However, usually these five categories are described as follows:

Extraversion: It trait includes characteristics such as excitability, talkativeness, sociability assertiveness and high amounts of emotional expressiveness.
Agreeableness: It personality dimension involved attributes like trust, kindness, altruism, affection, and other prosaically behaviors.

Conscientiousness: Common features of this dimension involved high levels of thoughtfulness, along with good impulse control & goal-directed behaviors. Those high in carefulness tend to be organized & mindful of details.
Neuroticism: Individuals high in this trait tend to experience anxiety, emotional instability, moodiness, irritability, and sadness.
Openness: This trait features characteristics like imagination & insight, and those high in this trait also tend to contain a broad range of interests.

Psychoanalytic Theories:

Freud's Theory of Psychosexual Development:

Freud's theory of psychosexual development is best known personality theories, however also one of the most controversial. Learn more regarding the psychosexual stages of development.

Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development

According to Erik Erikson, each of the stage plays a vital role in the development of and psychological and personality skills. The individual faces a developmental crisis which serves as a turning point in development during each stage,.

Horney's Theory of Neurotic Needs:

Theorist Karen Horney developed a list of neurotic requirement that arise from overusing coping strategies to deal along with basic anxiety. Learn more regarding these neurotic needs described by Horney.

Behavioral Theories:

Classical Conditioning:

This is one of the best-known concepts of behavioral learning theory. In this kind of conditioning, a neutral stimulus is paired along with a naturally occurring response. Once an relationship has been formed, the before neutral stimulus will come to evoke the response.

Operant Conditioning:

Operant conditioning is one of the basic concepts in behavioral psychology. This procedure involves weakening or strengthening a behavior by using reinforcement and punishment.

Humanist Theories:

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs:

Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs emphasizes the significance of self-actualization and is frequently pictured as a pyramid. The base of the pyramid contains basic survival needs, whereas the top of the pyramid is targeted on self-actualizing needs.

Personality Disorders:

In the United States, an estimated 10 to 15% of adults experience symptoms of at least one personality disorder. What the means of personality disorders? A personality disorder is a chronic & pervasive mental disorder that affects behaviors, thoughts and interpersonal functioning. The DSM-IV currently lists ten different personality disorders.

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