The word "criminology" itself tell us that it is fundamentally the study of crime. Criminology is derived through the Latin crimen, that means accusation, and the transliterated Greek logia, that have come to denote "the study of." The field goes so deeper than studying crimes themselves.
Criminology is described as the scientific study of crime, criminal behavior & law enforcement. Criminology studies crime, how society responds to crimes & how crime may be prevented. Criminology verified the hereditary, psychological and environmental causes of crime. It also verifies the modes of criminal investigation & conviction. The study also verifies the effectiveness of correction or punishment methods as compared with forms of rehabilitation or treatment. In brief it is the scientific study of the non-legal aspects of crime, by including its causes and prevention. A very illustrious definition of criminology is as follows: "the study of the making of laws, the breaking of laws, & reactions to the breaking of laws."
History of Criminology:
To several people interested in the roots & origin of Criminology, Lombroso is supposed to be the father of the science, meaning that he explored it and verified it from various angles in order to expose it. It was primary used by a law professor in Italy, Raffaele Garofalo, who in fact utilized the Italian term for word, criminologia. A French anthropologist also utilized the term around the similar time as Garofalo, who referred as criminology. There are some who trust that it is probable that the study of bumps on an individual’s skull, referred as Phrenology, is a better mark of illustration when it comes to the scientific origins of the term. Lombroso is supposed to be the father of criminology due to the many advances that he tries to make in the field. If not for him, criminology may not be as developed as it is today.
Over time, several different theories were formed as to what caused criminal behavior. These theories have their roots in psychology, biology and society, to name a few. Over time, via using these foundations for new theories, distinct schools of thought began to emerge. Through these distinct schools of thought, the theoretical science of criminal element could be rationalized. Individuals frequently debate to attempt to describe the reason for crime, so that it might then be removal by solving out the problem of what causes crime. By recognizing and responding to the motivator for crime & deviant behavior, more effectual measures of social control could be put into action. At present, we are capable to take care of the symptoms of crime. For instance, we have police officers who catch criminals. While found guilty by a panel of their own peers, the criminal have to go jail. That takes the criminal out of society. However, there are new criminals emerging every day. We have study to treat the symptoms, the specific criminals; however we have not yet been capable to find out the instigating factor in these developments.
This is the main goal of the science throughout the history of criminology. Since it is a theoretical science, all theories that correspond to the topic cannot instantly be proven as accurate or inaccurate, merely theoretical. Though, the continuous effort of individuals to idealize the workings of the person and society have been transformed & re-defined since the starting use of the term. If the history of criminology illustrates us anything, it is that the human nature to set up right from wrong and the differences among individuals specify the difference is virtually a timeless theme, at least since its birth. By incessantly researching and documenting the variables & changes in society and crime, people who are interested in criminology can line up the theories along with the established facts. After it is done, it is possible to sit down and examine the coinciding factors to determine the best course of action while it comes to evolving society so as to bound crime and intolerance as much as possible.
What is a Criminologist?
A criminologist is a person who studies crime & criminal behaviors and try to provide explanations as to who do crime and why they do it. A criminologist study a criminal’s behavior and the methods he / she employ. Criminologists might work independently, or they might be employed by public law enforcement agencies, security companies or private universities.
A criminologist develops profiles of criminal behavior & criminals by using research and studies that examine psychological behavior, environmental factors, social issues, education levels & biological factors. Criminologists also help make crime statistics into functional tools for law enforcement agencies. By making profiles and organizing statistics in meaningful information, a criminologist strives to generate strategies to help in preventing criminal behavior.
Not all criminologists have the “glamorous” job of profiling illustrious criminals or being commentators on news programs, but most do the hard and tiresome work of gathering, cataloging and reporting on crime data. It is where most of the criminologists begin their careers. Several use the platform of their degree to become law enforcement agents, such as FBI agents, police officers or medical examiners. Others go in teach or educational field or conduct research. Private security companies, state & federal correctional systems, drug enforcement agencies & the US Customs all employ criminologists as well.
A criminologist has to have a genuine interest in human nature & in helping to develop society. Other significant traits include communication, analysis, and listening and research skills. A criminologist ought to have a creative, analytical mind, integrity and a strong ethical sense. Pay is frequently low for those who have just an undergraduate degree and work for a government agency. For those who desire to move up in pay and prestige, an advanced degree is suggested.
A criminologist contains a criminal justice degree and might have targeted on psychology and sociology in college. A criminologist along with an undergraduate degree must have studied a broad range of subjects, including constitutional law, criminal theory, criminal law, sociology, psychology, government statistics and abnormal psychology.
A criminologist may selects to specialize in a specific field, targeting on a particular age group, crime prevention, certain types of crimes, litigation, corrections, criminal investigations, profiling or research. Based on his or her focus, a criminologist might attend a crime scene or autopsies to give contribution in an investigation. Criminologists might interview suspects or help police create a profile to catch a criminal. They might also contribute to a prosecution by testifying as an expert witness, or they might work with the corrections system to help rehabilitate criminals and expand crime prevention programs.
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