Economic and Resource Geography

Economic and Resource Geography:

Economic Geography:

We know that in economic geography the locational, behavioral and organizational principles and processes related along with the spatial allocation of scarce like: human, natural and man-made resources (that are distributed spatially also) and the spatial patterns and (indirect and direct, economic, environmental and social) consequences resulting by such assignations.

Economic geography is the study of the distribution, location and spatial association of economic activities across the world.

Usually and Historically, Economic Geography is related as a subfield of the discipline of geography, while during the final decades several economists have pursued interests which can be identified part of economic geography. Because of this fact, several believe like: Economic Geography is part of the Economics’ discipline, as opposed to Geography.

Specified the variety of approaches, Economic Geography has considered to various dissimilar subject matters, consisting of: the location of industries, economies of agglomeration (also termed as "linkages"), real estate, international trade, transportation, economic development, ethnic economies, gentrification, gendered economies, core-periphery theory, the economics of urban form, the association between the economy and the environment (tying in an extended history of geographers studying culture-environment interaction), and  also globalization.

Approaches to study:

Like the economic geography is an extremely wide discipline along with economic geographers utilizing various dissimilar methodologies in the study of economic phenomena in the world several distinct approaches to study have evolved over time:

A) Theoretical economic Geography focuses upon building theories relating to spatial distribution and arrangement of economic activities.

B) Regional economic geography observes the economic situations of exact areas or countries of the world. This deals along with local economic development and economic regionalization tool.

C) Historical economic geography observes history and the development of spatial economic structure. Utilizing historical data this observes how the centers of economic and population activity shift, what patterns of regional localization and specialization evolved over time and what factors illustrate these changes.

D) Serious economic geography is approach from the viewpoint of contemporary critical geography and its philosophy.

E) Behavioral economic geography that observes the cognitive processes underlying spatial reasoning, behavior of firms and individuals and locational decision making.


Thematically, economic geography can be separated in these sub disciplines as:

•    Geography of Resources
•    Geography of International Trade
•    Geography of Agriculture
•    Geography of Transport and Communication and others
•    Geography of Industry


The whole thing accessible in our environment that can be utilized to satisfy our requirements, given, it is technologically available, culturally acceptable and economically feasible can be known as ‘Resource’.

Classification of resources:

These resources can be categorized in the subsequent ways :

On the Basis of Origin:

1. Biotic Resources:

These are acquired from biosphere and have life like: human beings, fauna and flora, livestock, fisheries and so no.

2. Abiotic Resources:

All such things that are composed of non-living things are termed as abiotic resources. For instance: metals and rocks.

On the Basis of Exhaustibility:

1. Renewable Resources:

The resources that can be reproduced or renewed through chemical, physical or mechanical processes are termed as replenishable or renewable resources. The renewable resource may additionally be divided into continuous or flow like: water, wind and so on, and biological like: wildlife and forest.

2. Non-Renewable Resources:

These resources acquire a very long geological time like millions of years to make. Several of the resources as metals are recyclable and several as fossil fuels cannot be recycled and obtain exhausted along with their utilization.

On the Basis of Ownership:

1. Individual Resources:

This type of resources is owned privately through individuals. As instance farm land owned through farmers, urban people own houses, plots and the other property.

Community Owned Resources:

These resources are accessible to each the members of the community. As instance: the village common ground for burial, grazing, public parks, village ponds, picnic spots, playgrounds are obtainable to every people living there.
National Resources:

All the minerals, forests, water resources, wildlife, land inside the political boundaries and oceanic region up to 12 nautical miles (19.2 kilometer) from the coast are comprised in national resources.

1. International Resources:

The oceanic resources outside 200 kilometer of the Exclusive Economic Zone relates to open ocean and no particular country can use these without the agreement of international institutions.

On the Basis of the Status of Development:

1. Potential Resources:

These resources are discovered in a region, but it have not been employed are termed as potential resources. As instance, solar and wind energy is abundant in Gujarat and Rajasthan but until now these have not been developed appropriately.

2. Developed Resources:

These resources are surveyed and their quantity and quality have been found for consumption is termed as developed resources. The development of these resources depends upon level and technology of their viability.

3. Stock:

These resources have the potential to satisfy our requirements but human beings do not consist of the suitable technology to utilize these, are comprised among stock. For instance, inflammable gases; oxygen and hydrogen are compounds of water that can be utilized as a source of energy. But we do not have the needed technical ‘identify-how’ to utilize them for this reason. Thus, this can be taken as stock.

Reserves are the subset of the stock, that can be place into utilization along with the assist of existing technical ‘identify-how’ but their utilization has not been begun. The water in the forests and dams such are a reserve that can be utilized in the future.

Resource planning:

This is strategy or technique for the judicious utilization of resources in a country.

The resource planning is essential because of the subsequent:

A) An equitable distribution of resources is necessary for a continued quality of global and life peace.
B) If the now trend of resource depletion through some individuals and countries continues, the future of our planet is not safe.
C) This is necessary for sustainable existence of each form of life.
D) This is significant in a country that has enormous diversity in the accessibility of resources.

Importance of natural resource geography:

The significance of natural resources geography has developed in the light of its examine of the geographic aspects of the replenishment and conservation of natural resources and the environment and its attention to the difficulties of the sufficiency of such resources for mankind’s utilization. Natural resources geography comprised divisions related along with the study of:

(1) Climatic resources,
(2) Forest and other plant resources,
(3) Land reserves,
(4) Resources of the oceans of the world,
(5) Resources in the interior of the earth,
(6) Resources of the animal world, and
(7) Water resources of the land.

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