(Experiments with garden pea for a solitary pair of contrasting characters)
Mendel's Explanation for Monohybrid Cross:
Mendel chose a pure breeding tall plant and a breeding dwarf plant as parents (i.e., Homozygous).F1Generation:
He crossed the parents and from the seeds acquired he raised the initial filial generation. Here the plants were all tall and were termed as monohybrids.
Mendel permitted selfing of the F1 monohybrids and he acquired tall and dwarf plants correspondingly in the ratio of 3:1. The real number of tall and dwarf plants acquired by Mendel was 787 tall and 277 dwarf. The ratio of 3:1 is termed as phenotypic ratio as it is based on external appearance of offsprings.
By selfing the F2 offsprings Mendel acquired the F3 generation. He inspected that:
a. The F2 dwarf plants always bred true generation after generation whether cross or self pollinated.
b. Out of the F2 tall plants one third bred true for tallness. The rest two-thirds generated tall and dwarf in the ratio of 3:1. This meant that the F2 generation comprised of 3 kinds of plants.
i. Tall homozygous (pure): 25 percentii. Tall heterozygous: 50 percentiii. Dwarf homozygous (pure): 25 percentTherefore based on the constitution of factors the ratio of a Monohybrid cross is 1:2:1 that is termed as the genotypic ratio.
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