Pollution and Environmental Health problems, Biology tutorial


As human population rises, available space for wildlife and human decreases, demand for food agricultural production and natural resources increase and over time industries were set up. The outcome of such is overcrowding or overpopulation, raised personal and community demand and ultimately raised 'pollution' that is a by-product of human growth and industrialization. The pollutants are unwanted substances by man that have been introduced into the atmosphere deliberately or else and finally cause impurity and harm to the atmosphere (comprising its biotic and abiotic components). Pollution is the outcome of byproduct of human action that is unfavorable to the environment and constitutes danger to health of man and his natural resources.

Pollution and Environmental Health:

Pollution is an unwanted transform in the chemical, biological or physical features of air, land and water. Pollution will probably influence human life, a mixture of organisms (animals and plants), our industries, living conditions health and cultural possessions. Pollution might as well deteriorate our natural resources. The main kinds of pollution are air pollution, water pollution, noise pollution and land pollution.

Water Pollution:

Water pollution is the intentional or else release of substances by man into the aquatic atmosphere. Such substances are injurious to the organisms therein, and make them undesirable for the human practice.

There are many pollutants of our aquatic atmosphere which comprise:

1) Human mid Animal Wastes:

Such comprise Peaces, abattoir wastes, urine, kitchen wastes which are dumped into our lakes, rivers, lagoons and streams. Such include disease causing agents.

2) Detergent and Soaps:

This includes phosphates that can raise the quantity of phosphorous in the aquatic environment, thus causing extreme growth of algae and aquatic vegetation. The vegetation can block water-ways, canoes, preventing use of boats, fishing nets and finally kill aquatic organisms like fish.

3) Oil Spillage:

This covers the water surface and prevents the supply of oxygen into water, diminish the amount of light into water and destroy aquatic organisms.

4) Various Chemicals:

Different chemicals like gammalin 20, mercury, effluents from refineries and other industries are discharged into water. This is hazardous to health of man, fish, plants and animals in this water body.

5) Fertilizers:

Fertilizers are employed to enhance the soil fertility. Throughout torrential rains, some fertilizer like phosphates and sulphates are washed into aquatic atmosphere, where they cause excessive growth of aquatic plants.

6) Thermal Pollution:

Some of the factories employ water to cool their machines. In this procedure heat is gained by the coolant (that is, water) and when the coolant is liberated into aquatic milieu, it rises the temperature and reduces oxygen, which might amend aquatic life.

7) Acidity or Alkalinity:

Industrial waste matters might vary the pH (that is, a measure of alkalinity and acidity) of aquatic environment, killing the aquatic organisms.

Air Pollution:

Such are air-borne substances such as gases, smoke, fumes and dust from quarries or cement factories, which modifies the composition of air which organisms live on. Several air pollutants comprise:

1) Carbon-dioxide:

It is obtained from combustion of oil, coal, natural gas, fire wood or bush burning and from industrial machines, exhaust of motor-cycles, cars and air-crafts.

2) Other Gases:

This comprises, sulphur-dioxide, nitrogen-dioxide which is generated by automobiles. When discharged into atmosphere, they join with rain to forth acid rains, which decrease the soil fertility.

3) Fumes and Organic Substances

Various substances like alcohol, acids, gasoline and so on are some of the examples of fumes and organic substances. This raises the acidity of atmospheric air leading to skin and eye irritations.

4) Dust and Soot:

Dust from the making of roads, cement companies and quarries. And Sooth from the combination of coal, fire-wood and kerosene stoves. These varies the air composition, decreases vegetation cover and might cause breathing associated problems in man, decreases visibility for animal, man and aircrafts, influences respiration and photosynthesis by blocking stomata and surface of leaves.

5) Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC):

These are employed as coolants in the refrigerators, air conditioners, propellants in aerosols spray cans and in the formation of poly urethane foams. If CFC escapes into the atmosphere, they demolish the ozone layer, thus let the ultraviolet rays of the sun to hit directly the surface of the earth. This rises temperature and causes the climatic modifications. The result of direct sun's rays might cause sun burns, skin cancer and eye cataract and demolish aquatic microorganisms.

Noise Pollution:

This can be simply stated as an unwanted loud sound. There are many sources of noise pollution. This comprises industrial automobiles, machines, airplanes, loud music, guns and bombs, television sets, drumming, thunderstorm and signing.

Results of noise pollution comprise:

1) Weakening of rearing and deafness (would be temporary or permanent)

2) Raise in high blood pressure

3) Raise anxiety or fright (as by thunderstorm and bombs)

4) Emotional trouble and strain

5) Increased anger.

Land Pollution:

This is just dumping of rubbish on land through man. This rubbish might ultimately make the land infertile, aesthetically unpleasant and obtrusive. Land pollutants are of many kinds and might be broadly categorized as biodegradable and non-biodegradable pollutants.

1) Biodegradable pollutants: These kinds of pollutants can be degraded by microorganisms and thus they don't persist in nature.

a) Reject from hospitals homes, markets which might harbor germs, gives breeding grounds for insects, pests and rats.

b) Sewage, such as faces and urine from home and fluids example: milk and yoghurt from food factories. Water or land polluted having sewage is of health risk as it includes harmful bacteria which cause dysentery, typhoid and cholera.

2) Non-Biodegradable: These kinds of pollutants can't be degraded by microorganisms. They might be chemicals, radio-nuclides and some industrial products.

a) Poisonous chemicals: From laboratories and factories are injurious to man and plants example: Cadmium, zinc, mercury, carbide, sulphuric acid and so on might poison the ground water.

b) Radioactive elements from atomic and nuclear bombs, hospitals, and laboratories might cause gene mutation and death to animals, man and plants.

c) Bottles, tires, glasses, plastics and metals (that is, carcass of automobiles): They might cause body damage, streets, roads and water ways, give breeding places for rodents and mosquitoes and render the land hard to cultivate.

d) Pesticides and herbicides: This is employed to spray crops to kill insects and might be washed into water bodies where aquatic organisms might be killed as well.

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