Centrifugal Pump

Introduction to Centrifugal Pump

A centrifugal pump is a device which imparts energy to a fluid.  This energy infusion can reason a liquid to flow, increases to a higher level, or both. The centrifugal pump is very simple machine. It is a member of a family termed as rotary machines and contains two basic parts:

1) The rotary element or impeller and

2) The stationary element or casing (volute).

The increased popularity of centrifugal pumps is due mainly to the development of high speed steam turbines, electric motors, and internal combustion engines. In operation, a centrifugal pump slings liquid out of the impeller through centrifugal force.

The Constructional Features of Centrifugal Pump

(i) Bed plate:

Bed plate is generally made up of cast iron or welded steel of rigid construction. It is bolted to the foundation.

(ii)  Pump casing (volute):

This is generally made up of close-grained cast iron. It is split in the vertical plane at the centre of the casing and the two halves held together through some bolts and one or two locating pins and a gasket to make it leak proof. For simple removal of the impeller an end cover is generally provided.

(iii) Impeller:

Impeller is generally of close-grained cast iron or cast steel, hydraulically and dynamically balanced to prevent vibration and end-thrust. To remove probability of rusting, impellers are often made of gun-metal. Two types of impellers are extensively used. They are closed type and open type as displayed in the below diagram.

(iv) Spindle:

Spindle is made up of steel. In which corrosive liquids are to be handled, stainless steel spindles might be fitted. The portion of the spindle that acts inside the casing is generally fitted with a renewable gun-metal sleeve that is why it may be replaced while it gets worn out and the spindle might comprise a long life.

(v)  Stuffing box and gland packing:

This works two aims: on the suction side it avoids leakage of air and on the delivery side leakage of water below pressure. The packing material contains rings of soft, impregnated with graphite, cotton, woven yarn, and tallow. The gland bolts should just tighten lightly, just sufficient to avoid leakage. Into the stuffing box Water is admitted either by an internal hole or by an external connection. It is extremely significant that a centrifugal pump should not be permitted to run dry, when it may result in seizure of the spindle.

Current day's pumps are frequently fitted with mechanical leak-proof seals. Mainly it contains a mirror-finished, hard; flat surface against that a spring loaded ring of a softer material such as carbon, rubber, leather, or plastic is employed. This combination allows free rotation without permitting any leakage. The seal is kept cool through the liquid pumped.

(vi) Bearings:

 Bearing may be of the ball, roller or sleeve type. Grease lubricators are given on the bearing housing. The below diagrams clearly demonstrates the parts of a pump.


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