Introduction to DICOT Families
MALVACEAE - the cotton family
This family involves about 82 genera and more than 1,500 species. The plants are cosmopolitan in distribution, more abundant in tropical and subtropical regions. In India, Malvaceae is presented through 22 genera and 125 species.
Plants might be annual herbs (example Malva sylvestris) or perennial shrubs (example Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) or trees (example Thespesia populnea). This family's members of have mucilagenous substance. Stellate hairs take place on their young parts.
Tap root system.
Bracteoles creating a whorl outer to calyx are termed as epicalyx. Bracteoles 3 in Malva sylvestris, 5 to 8 in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, 10 to 12 in Pavonia odorata and not present in Abutilon indicum.
Petals 5, coloured, polypetalous but little fused at the base because of adhesion with staminal tube, regular and displaying twisted aestivation.
Several stamens, filaments are fused to create a staminal tube around the style and monadelphous. The staminal tube is fused along with the petals at their bases. Anthers are monothecous, reniform, transversely that attached to filaments and transversely dehiscent.
Ovary superior, two to several carpels but generally 5 to 10 carpels and syncarpous. Ovary with two to several locules. Pentacarpellary in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, 10 in Althaea and 15 to 20 in Abutilon indicum. No. of locules generally corresponds to no. of carpels. Each locule consists of one to several ovules on axile placentation. Style long, slender and passes by the staminal tube ending in two to several distinct round stigmas.
Loculicidal capsule example Abelmoschus esculentus or schizocarp like in Abutilon indicum and Sida cordifoliaI (Nilathuthi).
Endosperm is scanty that covered with hairs like in Gossypium barbadense.
Botanical explaination of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
Solitary axillary and cyme
Five to eight bracteoles outer to the calyx. They are free and green and.
Sepals 5, green, gamosepalous displaying valvate aestivation and odd sepal is posterior in position.
Numerous stamens, monadelphous, filaments are fused to create a staminal tube around the style. Staminal tube is red in color. Anthers are monothecous, reniform, yellow, transversely attached to the filament, dehisce transversely and extrorse.
Diagram: Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
Ovary superior, pentacarpellary and syncarpous. Ovary pentalocular along with several ovules per locule on axile placentation. Style simple, long, slender and passes via the staminal tube. Stigma 5, coloured and capitates.
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