Explain the preparation of phenols.

The methods used for the preparation of phenols are given below:
    
From aryl sulphonic acids

Aryl sulphonic acids on fusion with NaOH at 573 K followed by acidification yield phenols.

1616_Phenol preparation.png 

From aryl halides (Dow's process)

Phenol is obtained on a large scale by heating chlorobenzene with 10% NaOH solution at about 623 K and under a pressure of 300 atmospheres in the presence of copper catalyst.

1327_Phenol preparation1.png 

From diazonium salts


In the laboratory phenols are prepared hydrolysis of diazonium salts with water or dilute acids.

994_Phenol preparation2.png 
    
By decarboxylation of sodium salt of saclicyclic acid

Phenol can also be obtained by the decarboxylation of sodium salicyclate with soda lime (an equimolar mixture of NaOH and CaO).
                           
289_Phenol preparation3.png 
    
From Grignard's reagent


when oxygen is bubbled through the solution of phenylmagnesium bromide in ether, it forms an addition product which on acidification with dilute acid gives phenol.

1498_Phenol preparation4.png

   Related Questions in Chemistry

  • Q : Means of molal solution Choose the

    Choose the right answer from following. A molal solution is one that contains one mole of a solute in: (a) 1000 gm of the solvent (b) One litre of the solvent (c) One litre of the solution (d) 22.4 litres of the solution

  • Q : Influence of temperature Can someone

    Can someone please help me in getting through this problem. With increase of temperature, which of the following changes: (i) Molality (ii) Weight fraction of solute (iii) Fraction of solute present in water (iv) Mole fraction.

  • Q : What are halogen oxoacids? Fluorine

    Fluorine yields only one oxyacid, hypo

  • Q : Group Cations Explain how dissolving

    Explain how dissolving the Group IV carbonate precipitate with 6M CH3COOH, followed by the addition of extra acetic acid, establishes a buffer with a pH of approximately

  • Q : Ionization Potential Second ionization

    Second ionization potential of Li, Be and B is in the order (a)Li>Be>B (b)Li>B>Be (c)Be>Li>B (d)B>Be>Li

  • Q : Liquid surfaces The surface between a

    The surface between a liquid and a vapour distinguishes these fluids. The surface tension of liquids can be looked upon as that the property which draws a liquid together and forms a liquid vapour interface, therefore, distinguishing liquids from gases.<

  • Q : Molecular Properties Symmetry Molecular

    Molecular orbitals and molecular motions belong to certain symmetry species of the point group of the molecule.Examples of the special ways in which vectors or functions can be affected by symmetry operations are illustrated here. All wave functions soluti

  • Q : Question on molality Provide solution

    Provide solution of this question. Which of the following concentration factor is affected by change in temperature : (a)Molarity (b) Molality (c)Mole fraction (d)Weight fraction

  • Q : Determining concentration in ppm A 500

    A 500 gm tooth paste sample has 0.2g fluoride concentration. Determine the concentration of F in terms of ppm level: (a) 250 (b) 200 (c) 400 (d) 1000Answer: (c) F-ions in ppm = (0.2/500) x 106 = 400

  • Q : What are ion selective electrodes? Ion

    Ion Selective Electrodes An ion selective membrane can be used to form an electrochemical cell whose emf depends on the concentration of that ion. Before we proceed to an important application of emf measurements, brie

©TutorsGlobe All rights reserved 2022-2023.