Explain alcohols and phenols in organic chemistry.

Alcohols and phenols are the compounds containing one or more hydroxyl groups (- OH). The alcohols contain the -OH group attached to alkyl group whereas in phenols, the -OH group is attached to aromatic ring. These are classified as mono-, di- and trihydric alcohols or phenols according to the number of -OH groups contained in their molecules. Some examples of mono-, di- and trihydric alcohols and phenols are as follows:

    Alcohols

2399_alcohol and phenol.png 

It may be noted that the aromatic compounds in which -OH group is not directly attached to benzene ring are not phenols but are called aromatic alcohols. These may also be called as aryl derivatives of aliphatic alcohols. When four or more hydroxyl groups are present, they are called polyhydric alcohols or polyhydric phenols.

Monohydric alcohols may be further classified according to the hybrid state of the carbon atom to which the -OH group is attached.
    
Compounds containing Csp3 ) -OH bond

In this type of alcohols, the -OH group is attached to a sp3 hybridised carbon atom. They are further classify as follows:

Primary (1°), secondary (2°) and tertiary (3°) alcohols

Monohydric alcohols are classified as primary, secondary or tertiary alcohols depending upon whether the hydroxyl group is attached to a primary, secondary or tertiary carbon atom. For instance,

1240_alcohol and phenol1.png 

Allylic alcohols: in allylic alcohols, the -OH group is attached to a sp3-hybridised carbon next to the carbon-carbon double bond, that is to an allylic carbon. For instance,

2066_alcohol and phenol2.png 

Benzylic alcohols: in benzlylic alcohols, the -OH group is attached to a sp3 -hybridised carbon atom next to an aromatic ring. Allylic and benzylic alcohols can be secondary, primary or tertiary.
    
Compounds containing Csp3 )-OH bond:

These alcohols include -OH group bonded to a carbon-carbon double bond i.e. to a vinylic carbon or to an aryl carbon. For example, vinylic alcohols and phenols belong to this class of compounds.

   Related Questions in Chemistry

  • Q : Mole fraction of water Give me answer

    Give me answer of this question. A solution contains 25%H2O 25%C2H5OH , and 50% CH3 COOH by mass. The mole fraction of H2O would be: (a) 0.25 (b) 2.5 (c) 0.503 (d) 5.03.

  • Q : Problem on equilibrium constant Ethanol

    Ethanol is manufactured from carbon monoxide and hydrogen at 600 K and 20 bars according to the reaction2 C0(g) + 4 H2(g) ↔ C2H5OH(g) + H2O (g)The feed stream contains 60 mol% H2, 20 m

  • Q : Coordination number of a cation The

    The coordination number of a cation engaging a tetrahedral hole is: (a) 6  (b) 8  (c) 12  (d) 4 Answer: (d) The co-ordination number of a cation occupying a tetrahedral hole is 4.

  • Q : Question on Mole fraction Mole fraction

    Mole fraction of any solution is equavalent to: (a) No. of moles of solute/ volume of solution in litter (b) no. of gram equivalent of solute/volume of solution in litters (c) no. of  moles of solute/ Mass of solvent in kg (d) no. of moles of any

  • Q : Mole fraction of water and ethanol Give

    Give me answer of this question. A solution contains 1 mole of water and 4 mole of ethanol. The mole fraction of water and ethanol will be: (a) 0.2 water + 0.8 ethanol (b) 0.4 water + 0.6 ethanol (c) 0.6 water + 0.8 ethanol (d) 0.8 water + 0.2 ethanol

  • Q : Whether HCl is a base or an acid

    Whether HCl is a base or an acid? Briefly state your comments?

  • Q : Advantages of doing your own chemistry

    What are the advantages of doing your own chemistry assignments? State your comment?

  • Q : State substituted hydrocarbon Elaborate

    Elaborate a substituted hydrocarbon?

  • Q : Question based on vapour pressure and

    Benzene and toluene form nearly ideal solutions. At 20°C, the vapour pressure of benzene is 75 torr and that of toluene is 22 torr. The parial vapour pressure of benzene at 20°C for a solution containing 78g of benzene and 46g of toluene in torr is: (a) 50 (b)

  • Q : Benefits of soapy detergents over the

    What are the benefits of soapy detergents over the soap less detergents? Briefly state the benefits?

©TutorsGlobe All rights reserved 2022-2023.