Human Anatomy

Human Anatomy:

This can be precisely explained as a complementary fundamental medical science that deals along with the scientific study of human body of morphology. Simply, human anatomy is the studies of structure of human body in respect to each its parts and their associations to each other.

To the study of structure, human anatomy is purely associated. This is not related along with the study of functions of different parts of human body. Actually, there is the other basic medical science, termed as Physiology that is related along with the study of the function of different parts of human body. Anatomy just illustrates the structural details.

Subdivisions of Human Anatomy:

There are two major levels of structure of human body (and also every other thing): microscopic level and macroscopic level. For all of the two levels. There is a part of subdivision of anatomy. The one dealing along with macroscopic level is termed as gross anatomy and another that deals along with microscopic level is known as microscopic anatomy or histology.

Gross anatomy:

In gross anatomy, structure of human body is studied as seen through naked eye. There are two approaches for this anatomy: Systemic approach and Regional approach.

In regional approach, human body is separated into regions like arm; forearm, wrist and so on, all structures inside that region are studied simultaneously.

While in systemic approach, the body is divided in organ systems as skeletal system, nervous system, muscular system etc and structures relating to one system are studied together.

Microscopic anatomy:

Histology or microscopic anatomy is the learning of the structure of different organs and tissues of human body under a microscope. The understanding of the ultra-structure assists understands the organs and tissues in a better manner.

Human Body Systems:

Skeletal system:

It is the system of bones, related joints and cartilages of human body. Simultaneously these structures form the human skeleton. Skeleton can be explained as the hard framework of human body around that the entire body is built. Mostly all the hard parts of human body are parts of human skeletal system. Joints are very significant since they make the hard and rigid skeleton permit various types of movements at various locations. If the skeleton were without joints, no movement would have acquired place and the importance of human body; no more than a stone.

Muscular System:

It is the system of Human Body that offers motor power for all movements of body parts. It is composed of special tissue termed as muscular tissue. Muscles have the capability to contract actively to offer the force for movements of body parts. This is a significant system of human body since without it, life will completely stop. Muscles generate not only those movements which are under the control of our will and which we can feel and see, but also those movements which are responsible for activities like pumping of blood, digestion of food, breathing etc.

Nervous System:

It is the chief controlling and also coordinating system of the body. This controls and regulates all involuntary and voluntary activities of human body. There are three feature properties of this system of human body; Conductivity, Responsiveness and Sensitivity.

Respiratory System:

It is the system of respiratory passages, lungs and respiratory muscles of human body. This system is responsible for exchange of gases between the surroundings and the human body. In the process of exchange of gases, human body gains oxygen and obtains rid of carbon dioxide. The other gases of the atmosphere have no important role in human respiratory system. This system is extremely significant for human body since the process of respiration cannot be stropped even for some seconds. If the process of respiration stops still for a minute or two, the situation will become critical and will finally end in death.

Cardiovascular System:

This system means the system of heart and blood vessels of human body. The word “cardiovascular” is a combination of two words as: “Cardio” and “vascular”. The word “cardio” is derived from “cardiac” meaning Heart and the word “vascular” signifies blood vessels. Conversely the name itself signifies that cardiovascular systems are the system of blood and heart vessels. This system is also termed as “Circulatory System”.

Digestive System:

It is the food processing system of human body. The entire digestive system is in the structure of hollow, a long, twisted and turned tube, termed as the alimentary canal that starts from the oral cavity and finish at the anus. The overall process of absorption and digestion of food arises in this tube. The tube is divided into various parts on the origin of structure and function of each part.

Urinary System:

It is also known as excretory system of human body. This is the system of storage, production and elimination of urine. Elimination and formation of urine is significant for human body since urine contains nitrogenous wastes of the body which must be eliminated to keep homeostasis. Nitrogenous wastes are made by metabolic activities in the cells. These nitrogenous wastes with excess of water and salts are combined in the kidneys to form urine. It is significant for maintaining the internal environment of the body clean. It maintains exact homeostasis of salts, water and nitrogenous wastes.

Male Reproductive System:

It is the system of sex organs of male human beings which are a part of the overall reproductive process of human beings. Reproduction is the capability of all living organisms to provide rise to their babies which are similar to them. In human beings, sexual type of reproduction obtains place and for this kind of reproduction, female and male reproductive systems are needed. Male reproductive system is mostly concerned along with production of semen (whitish viscous fluid emitted from the male reproductive tract which comprises sperm and fluids) and transferring it in the female reproductive tract.

Female Reproductive System:

It is the system of reproduction in female human beings. It is complex as compared to the male reproductive system. Females have to bear fetus throughout fetal period of development inside their bodies. Adaptations and modifications to bear the fetus make female reproductive system more complicated. The female body also shows specific adaptations to become able of bearing the fetus for nine months. Main role of female reproductive system is to generate eggs and permit the process of development and fertilization to take place inside their body.

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