Ageing and Health

Ageing and Health:

Ageing, irreversible biological modifying which arise in all living things along with the passage of time, eventually outcomes in death. However, all organisms age, rates of ageing differ considerably. Ageing in humans belongs to a multidimensional method of physical, psychological, and social modification.

Fruit flies, for illustration, are born, grow old and die in 30 or 40 days, whereas field mice comprise a life span of regarding three years. Elephants to age 50, dolphins may live to age 25 and Galapagos tortoises to 100. Such life spans pale in comparison to those of several species of giant sequoia trees that live hundreds of years.

Amongst humans, the effects of ageing differ from one individual to the other. The average life expectancy for Americans is approximately 75 years, mostly twice what this was in the early 1900s. While several people never reach this age, and the others are beset along with illnesses whether they do, more and more people are living healthy lives suitably into their 90s and older. The study of the dissimilar ageing processes which arise among individuals and the factors which cause these modifications is termed as gerontology. Geriatrics is a medical specialty related along with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in the elderly.

Why is it important?

As our life-expectancy from birth raise, then our population likes an entire gets older. The proportion of people that are over retirement age is increasing and thus the median age of the population is also rising. The median age is the age at that half the population is older and half the population is younger. It can have several effects consisting:

  • Pressure on the health service like older people is more possible to be susceptible to age-associated illnesses.
  • Pressure on families to care for older relations.
  • A smaller proportion of the population working and thus paying taxes to help the health services and paying for state pensions.
  • A greater proportion of people losing their quality and independence of life because of low income or ill health or both.

Causes of Ageing:

Though the exact causes of ageing remain not known, scientists are studying a vast deal regarding the ageing process and the mechanisms which drive it. Several of the most promising research on the ageing process focuses upon the microscopic modifies that arise in each living cells as organism’s age. During the 1965 American microbiologist Leonard Hayflick viewed that under laboratory case, human cells can duplicate up to 50 times before they end. He also noticed that while cells discontinue normal cell division, they begin to age, or senesce. Because his groundbreaking observations, scientists have been discovering for the underlying cause, termed as the senescent factor (SF), of why cells stop dividing and hence age.

Dissimilar theories have been proposed to illustrate how SF works. One theory is based upon the assumption which ageing, and diseases which arise more frequently along with advancing age, are caused through structural damage to cells. This damage accumulates in minute amounts every time the cell divides, finally preventing the cell from carrying out general functions.

The other theory proposes that extra, useless bits of DNA accumulate over time inside a cell's nucleus. Ultimately this so-termed as junk DNA builds up to levels which clog normal cell action. If this concept is proper, scientists may be capable to determine ways to prevent accumulation of junk DNA, thereby slowing down the method of senescence in cells.
The other studies are underway to study the consequences of ageing.

Population ageing:

It is the increase in the number and proportion of older people in society. It has three possible causes as: migration, longer life expectancy (reduced death rate), and decreased birth rate. Ageing has an important impact on society. Young people aim to commit most crimes; they are more likely to push for and social political change, to increase and adopt latest technologies, and to requirement education. Older people have various requirements from government and society as opposed to young people, and frequently contradictory values as well. Older people are far more likely to vote also, and in several countries the young are forbidden from voting. Hence, the aged have comparatively extra political influence.

Health Challenges due to Ageing:

Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome:

Regarding three-fourths of adults aged 60 and older are overweight or obese. Obesity is concerned to type 2 diabetes, colon and breast cancer, cardiovascular disease, gall bladder illness, and high blood pressure.

More than 40 % of adults 60 and older have a mixture of risk factors termed as metabolic syndrome that puts people at increased risk for increasing cardiovascular, diabetes disease, and specific cancers.


Arthritis affects nearly half the elderly population and is a leading cause of incapability. Arthritis in the knees is the cost we pay for walking upright on two legs." Prevention: ignore overuse, do steady, usual exercise quite than in weekend spurts, and stop whether you feel pain.

Osteoporosis and falls:

Osteoporosis and low bone mass affect mostly 44 million adults age 50 and above, most of them are women.

In a certain year, more than one-third of adults age 65 and older experience go down. 20 % to 30 percent of those who fall suffer injuries that reduce mobility and independence; falls are the leading reasons of death from injury in this age group.


Risk for increasing most types of cancer raises with age.

"As women age, the rate of cervical cancer reduces, and endometrial cancer raises”

The risk of prostate cancer rises with age, and black men have a higher rate than white men. Screening must start in your 40s, and at extremely least should occupy a digital rectal examination.

Lung cancer accounts for more deaths than prostate cancer, colon cancer and breast cancer combined.  So advice is: "Stop smoking."

Cardiovascular Disease (CVD):

Younger baby boomers get heed: CVD affects more than one-third of women and men in the 45- to 54-year age group, and the incidence rises along with age. Cardiovascular diseases, that are diseases of the heart or blood vessels, are the most important cause of death. They comprise arteriosclerosis, arrhythmia, coronary heart disease, hypertension, heart failure, orthostatic hypotension and congenital heart disease and stroke.

Vision and Hearing Loss:

Age-associated eye diseases, cataract, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma affect people aged 40 and older.
"Eating foods along with high antioxidant content might be useful in decreasing vision loss because of macular degeneration,"

The incidence of hearing loss increases along with age. 29 % of those along by hearing loss are 45-65; 43 percent of those by hearing loss are 65 or older.

Hearing loss acquires a toll on the quality of life and can cause depression and withdrawal from social activities. Though hearing aids can assist, only one out of four people utilize them.


The good news is that you'll possibly maintain your own teeth, and bleaching and implants can create your teeth look years younger than the rest of your body. Only 25% of people over age 60 wear dentures today.

Mental and Physiological function:

As a person acquires old the other change which arises is the changes in the Mental and Physiological function. The individual may begin becoming confused at times. The person may start feeling also insecure while they become old. The purpose behind such changes is that as a person gets old, the brain function diminishes because of degeneration of the brain cells.

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