Concept of Bipolar Transistor Inverter

Bipolar Transistor Inverter:

The objective of this chapter is to further explain the different modes of operation of a typical BJT Inverter. Via simulation tools like MoHAT and PSpice and also via the analytical technique, we will determine the critical voltages of BJT Inverter (VOH, VIH, VOL, and VIL).

VOH: It is the maximum voltage which takes place on the output.

VOL: It is the minimum voltage which takes place on the output.

VIL: The voltage which takes place if the slope of VTC equals-1 and the BJT are on the Edge of Conduction.

VIH: It is the voltage if the slope of VTC equals-1 and the BJT are on the Edge of Saturation.

VM: It is the voltage point on VTC where the input voltage is equivalent to the output voltage.

Voltage Transfer Characteristics (VTC): It is a graph of input voltage versus the output voltage.

Forward Active: It is BJT mode where the input voltage is bigger than the cut-in voltage and the collector voltage is bigger than 0.1V.

Saturation: It is the BJT mode in which the voltage input is bigger than cut-in voltage and the collector voltage is equivalent to 0.1V.

The main aim of this chapter is to guide such interested in the basic operations of a BJT inverter.

The BJT inverter exhibited below has a DC voltage source input, varying from 0V to 5V, joined to a 10KΩ resistor set on the base of BJT. A 5V Voltage source joined to a 1Ω resistor is on the collector of BJT, whereas the emitter of BJT is joined to the ground. The voltage output is situated in between the collector and 1kΩ resistor at voltage node V(4).


PSpice, a circuit simulation program, was utilized to analyze the characteristics of BJT inverter with the following properties. The information received from PSpice analysis provide the different critical voltage points of the BJT inverter, the points being the output voltage high VOH, the input voltage low VIL, and the input voltage high, VIH the output voltage low, VOL and the voltage where the input and output are equivalent, Vm. The information output from PSpice was taken and then inputted to MoHat for the graphical analysis. MoHat was then employed to find out the BJT's modes of operation at differing input voltages.

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