It is explained as a subset of telecommunication including the transmission of data to and from computers and components of computer systems. More particularly data communication is transmitted through mediums such as, coaxial cables, wires, fiber optics, or radiated electromagnetic waves such like infrared light, broadcast radio, microwaves, and satellites.
Elements of Data Communication:
Four fundamental elements are needed for any communication system.
1. Sender: The computer or device that is utilized for sending data is called as sender, source or transmitter. In modern digital communication system, usually the source is a computer.
2. Medium: The means by which data is sent from one location to another location is called transmission medium. If the receiver and transmitter are in a building, a wire connects them. If they are situated at different locations, they may be linked by fiber optics, telephone lines, or microwaves.
3. Receiver: The device or computer that attains the data is called as a receiver. The receiver may be a computer, printer or a fax machine.
4. Protocols: There are rules under which data transmission takes place among sender and receiver. The data communication s/w is utilized to transfer data from one computer to another. The s/w follows similar communication protocols can communicate and exchange data.
Techniques of Data Communication:
There are two possible method of sending data from the sender to receiver that means
In this each bit of character/data contain a separate channel and all of the bits of a character are simultaneously transmitted. Here the transmission is parallel character by character.
In this, the data is sent as one bit at a time having a signal channel for the entire bit.
Modes of Data Communication:
The way in which data is transmitted from one situation to another situation is called data transmission mode. There are three modes or ways for transmitting data from one position to another position. These are following:
In this mode, data can be transmitted in both of the directions but only in one direction at a time. Throughout any transmission, one is treated as the transmitter and the other as a receiver. So each time for direction of data communication is reversed, sending or receiving data, it slows down data transmission rate. In these modes, transmission of data can be confirmed. For example: Wireless communication.
In this, data is transmitted in one direction only. A terminal can just send data and cannot receive it or it can just receive data but cannot send it. Usually simplex mode is used for a remote device that is meant only to receive data. This is not possible to confirm successful transmission of data in simplex mode.
This mode is not extensively used. Speaker, radio and television broadcasting are instance of simplex transmission, on which the signal is send through the transmission to TV antenna. There is no return signal.
In this, data can be transmitted simultaneously in both of the directions. It is a faster mode for transmitting data as no time wastes in switching directions. For example: telephone set in which both the users can talk and listen at the similar time.
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