Computer Protocols

Computer Protocols:

While computers communicate with each other, there required to be a common set of rules and instructions that every computer follows. A particular set of communication rules is called as a protocol. Due to the various ways computers can communicate with each other, there are several different protocols - too many for the average person to remember. Some instance of these different protocols includes, TCP/IP, PPP, HTTP, SLIP and FTP.

Networking Protocols:

TCP/IP: Abbreviation for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, the suite of communications protocols utilized to linked hosts on the Internet. TCP/IP uses various protocols, the two main ones being TCP and IP. TCP/IP is developed into the UNIX operating system and is utilized by the Internet, assembled it the de facto standard for transmitting data over networks.

UDP: User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a streamline economy class version of TCP which is connectionless but extremely unreliable compared with TCP which is connection oriented

DLC: Short for Data Link Control, an older protocol use to communicate along with Mainframe computers and some older HP network laser printers.

NWLINK: Netware Link developed through Microsoft to communicate with Older Novell networks.

Dial Up Networking Protocols:

PPP: Stand for Point-to-Point Protocol, a technique of linking to a computer to the Internet PPP is more stable than the older SLIP protocol and provides error-checking features.

SLIP: Stand for Serial Line Internet Protocol, a technique of connecting to the Internet another more common method is PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol). SLIP is an older and easier protocol, but from a practical perspective, there's not much difference among connecting to the Internet through SLIP or PPP. Generally, service providers offer only one protocol while some support both protocols.

Transferring File Protocols:

FTP: Abbreviation of File Transfer Protocol, the protocol utilized on the Internet for connection oriented transferring of files. Popular protocol for uploading pages and downloading pages.

SFTP: It stand for Secure File Transfer Protocol .it use for transferring files in a secure manner.

TFTP: It stand for Trivial File Transfer Protocol. It is a connectionless FTP as opposed to FTP which is connection oriented
World Wide Web Protocol:

HTTP: It stand for Hypertext Transfer Protocol. It is underlying protocol utilized by the World Wide Web. It permits the browser communicate with the web server.

HTTPS: HTTP Secure through built in SSL (Encryption)

E-Mail Protocols:

POP3: It stands for Short for Post Office Protocol version 3, the protocol used for receiving incoming e-mail.

SMTP: It stand for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, a protocol used for sending e-mail messages between servers.

IMAP4: It stand for Internet Messaging Protocol version 4 use by mail clients to retrieve e-mail from a mail server

Routing Protocols:

RIP: It is stand for Routing Information Protocol. it is one of the most commonly used routing protocols on internal networks (and to a lesser extent, networks linked to the Internet) which helps routers adapt to changes dynamically of network connections by communicating information regarding which networks each router can attain and how far away those networks are.

OSPF: It stand for Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol. It is a link state hierarchical interior gateway protocol (IGP) for network routing. Algorithm is utilized to calculate the shortest path first. It uses cost like its routing metric. A link state database is made of the network topology that is identical on all routers in the area.

EIGRP: It stand for Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol. It is a Cisco proprietary routing protocol loosely depends on their original IGRP

BGP: It stands for Border Gateway Protocol. While two systems are using BGP, they establish a TCP connection, and then send each other their BGP routing tables. BGP uses distance vectoring. It predicts failures by sending periodic keep alive messages to its neighbors every 30 seconds. It exchanges information regarding reachable networks with other BGP systems including the full path of systems that are between them.

Name Translation Protocols:

DNS: It stands for Domain Name Service. It is a protocol that translates HOST names to IP address

WINS: It stands for Windows Internet Name Service. A TCP/IP network service for MS Networks which resolves Net BIOS names and facilitates browsing across sub networks the manual file is called as LMHOSTS

Networking Service Protocols:

Telnet: It is stand for Telecommunication Network .it is a terminal emulation service use to connect to another host

SSH: It stand for Secure Shell .It is an application program use to log into another computer over a network

NTP: It is stand for Network Time Protocol. It is a standard application protocol that sets computer clocks to a standard time source.

NAT: It is stands for Network Address translation. it is used in computer networking, (NAT, also called as network masquerading or IP-masquerading) is a method in which the source and/or destination addresses of IP packets are rewritten as they pass out through a firewall or router. It is most commonly used to enable multiple hosts on a private network to access the Internet by using a single public IP address.

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