Computer Graphics

Computer Graphics:

It is an art of drawing pictures, charts, and lines etc using computers with the help of programming. Computer graphics is built up of number of pixels. Pixel is the smallest graphical unit or picture represented on the computer screen. There are two types of computer graphics basically.

Types of computer graphics:

Interactive Computer Graphics:

It involves a two way communication between user and computer. Here the observer is given some control over the image providing him with an input device for instance the video game controller of the ping pong game. It helps him to signal his request to the computer.

The computer on receiving signals from the input device can appropriately change the displayed picture. To the user it seems that the picture is instantaneously changing in response to his commands. He can give a series of commands, every one producing a graphical response from the computer. In this manner he maintains a conversation, or dialogue, along the computer.

It affects our lives in a number of indirect ways. For instance, it helps to train the pilots of our airplanes. We can build a flight simulator which may help the pilots to get trained not in a real aircraft however on the grounds at the control of the flight simulator. The flight simulator is mock up of an aircraft flight deck, having all the usual controls and surrounded through screens on which we have the projected computer generated views of the terrain visible on landing and takeoff.

Flight simulators have various advantages over the real aircrafts for training purposes, including safety, fuel savings, and the ability to familiarize the trainee along with a large number of the world’s airports.

Non Interactive Computer Graphics:

Non interactive computer graphics is also known as passive computer graphics. It is the computer graphics whereby user does not have any control over the image. Merely image is the product of static stored program and work according to the instructions provided in the program linearly. The image is completely under the control of program instructions not under the user. For example: screen savers.

Computer graphics is used for following:

Computer aided design:

A major use of computer graphics is in design procedure specifically for architectural systems and engineering. Computer aided design referred as CAD methods are now routinely used in the design of automobiles, buildings, aircraft, space craft and textiles etc.,

  • System in virtual actuality environments.
  • Useful for testing performance of a vehicle.
  • Realistic 3D renderings of building designs.
  • Realistic renderings of design process.

Presentation Graphics:

It used to produce illustration for reports or generate 35mm slides etc. Commonly these are used to summarize and economic data for managerial reports, research reports, consumer information bulletins etc.
For Example: line graphs, bar charts, and pie charts.

Computer art:

Computer graphics methods are broadly utilized in fine art and commercial art applications. Artists utilize variety of computer methods including paint brush programs, special purpose hardware, etc.

Entertainment:

Computer graphics methods are now commonly used in making music videos, motion pictures, and television shows. Sometimes graphics are displayed through themselves that means computer animation and sometimes graphics objects are combined with the actors and live scenes.

Education and training:

Computer produced models of financial, physical and economic systems are frequently used as educational aids. For some of the training applications special system are designed.

Fundamentals of Internet:

In simple terms the internet is a network of the interlinked computer networking worldwide that is accessible to the general public. These interconnected computers work through transmitting data through a special kind of packet switching that is known as the IP or the internet protocol.

Internet is such a vast network of many different interlinked networks relating to the business, academic, government and even smaller domestic networks, thus internet is known as the network of all the other networks. These networks make able the internet to be employed for several important functions which include the several means of communications such as the file transfer, the online chat and sharing of the documents and web sites on the WWW, or the World Wide Web.

In the year of 1969 the Internet began as the U.S. Department of Defense's Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA) to provide immediate communication within the Department in case of war. Then Computers were installed at U.S. universities with defense associated projects. As scholars started to go online, this network modified through military use to scientific use. As ARPAnet raise, administration of the system became distributed to a several organizations, by including the National Science Foundation (NSF). This shift of liability began the transformation of science oriented ARPAnet into the commercially minded and funded Internet used today by millions.

The use of IP in the Internet is the integral part of the network, as they gives the services of the internet, through distinct layers organization through the IP data packets. There are other protocols which are the sub-classes of the IP itself, such as the TCP, and the HTTP.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Internet

Internet is undoubtedly the most critical technology of the modern world, the useful application has not only made our lives easier than ever before but it also plays a very vital role in the future developments.

Of course, everyone is very well known that internet has the global advantages than only a few concentrated ones. Having the introduction of the internet the global communication has become a matter of only the finger tips of the users. The internet has brought about the several different, innovative communication means like the chatting, emailing and the voice conversation system over the internet.

These systems have not only made the communication simple but also the everyday lives interactions following the business of people living on the other sides of the world. The other blessings of internet involved the umpteen resources that we can obtain on anything at all over the net and also the entertainment through the websites, games and media access which was never so simple before.

Everything has the negative aspect to it and so does the internet, the main threat of the internet is in the pornography and the security threats. Pornography is extensive over the internet making it unsuitable to be used by the children below certain age so as to prevent the psychological damage from the early days. These sites are simply accessible & attractive for the young kids and teenagers.

The security over the internet cannot be guaranteed because of the major hacking techniques and theories, even the interaction among the two strangers can lead to friendship and then serious cases of murders and serial killers plots which have become increasingly popular due to the internet launch.

In spite of a few major problems the Advantages of the Internet use clearly outweigh the few disadvantages.

How does Internet Work?

The web world works on the most excellent Client-Server Model wherein the Client (browser) runs on a local computer and the Server runs on a web host. To use the web you need to type the URL and the browser makes the connection to a server via HTTP protocol. Then the server accepts the link and sends the file back to the browser and thus closes the connection. It is the responsibility of the web browsers to interpret the HTML pages & efficiently display them.

What is Internet Architecture?

The major architecture revolves round the hardware components and a system of several Software layers. Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) manages the responsibility of Internet architectural design. IETF develops firm standards that are feasible to all through a series of publications called Request for Comments (RFC) and further they constitute Internet Standards. It describes a Protocol suite named Internet Protocol Suite. The model architecture spilt the methods into layers of which Top layer is named as Application layer and below it is the Transport layer which hosts Client-Server Model along with data exchange methods. The main layer named Internet layer enables computers to recognize and locate each other by Internet Protocol (IP) addresses & let them to connect to one another. The last layer is the Link layer that provides connection among hosts on the similar type of local networks like Local Area Network (LAN) or in some of the cases Dial Up connections. The fundamental algorithm of set of protocols is the whole underlying factor that permits for sharing of resources across millions of interconnected networks. This model has been called TCP/IP model wherein these layers are independent of its underlying Hardware.

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