Vascular Tissue System

Introduction to Vascular Tissue System

The vascular tissue system contains phloem and xylem. The xylem and phloem's elements are all the time organized in groups.  They are termed as vascular bundles. The vascular bundle contains cambial tissue among the xylem and phloem in dicot stem. Such type of vascular bundle is termed as open vascular bundle. In monocot stem, cambium is not present in the vascular bundle; therefore it is termed as closed vascular bundle.

In roots, xylem and phloem are arranged in an alternate way on dissimilar radii. It is termed as radial arrangement.  In stems and leaves, xylem and phloem are arranged at similar radius and create a vascular bundle together.  Such type of vascular bundle is termed as conjoint vascular bundle. Relies on the mutual relationship of xylem and phloem, conjoint vascular bundles are separated into 3 types.

They are as follow:

1. Collateral,

2. Bicollateral and

3. Concentric.

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Diagram: Various types of vascular bundles

In a vascular bundle if xylem and phloem are arranged together with similar radius with phloem in the direction of the outside, such type of vascular bundle is termed as collateral vascular bundle. If phloem takes place on both the outer and inner sides of xylem, the bundle is termed as bicollateral. Bicollateral vascular bundles are most usually seen in Cucurbitaceae.

The bundle where either phloem surrounds the xylem / xylem surrounds the phloem totally is termed as concentric vascular bundle. This is of two kinds

1. amphicribral and

2. amphivasal.

In the first type the amphicribral concentric vascular bundles; the phloem totally surrounds the xylem. Example: Polypodium.

In the second type amphivasal concentric vascular bundles, the xylem totally surrounds the phloem. Example: Acorus. In roots, protoxylem vessels are exists in the direction of the periphery and the metaxylem vessels towards the centre. This arrangement of xylem is termed as exarch. In stem, protoxylem vessels are in the direction of the centre, when metaxylem in the direction of the periphery. This condition is termed as endarch.

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