Alkanes Homework Help - K-12 Grade Level, College Level Chemistry

Introduction to Alkanes

Hydrocarbons that having neither double nor triple bond functional groups are categorized as cycloalkanes or Alkanes, it is depending on whether the carbon atoms of the molecule are arranged simply in chains or also in rings. These hydrocarbons have no functional groups though, they comprise the framework on which functional groups are located in other classes of compounds and for naming and studying organic compounds it provides an perfect starting point. The cycloalkanes and alkanes are also members of a larger class of compounds considered as aliphatic. Simply, the compounds that do not include any aromatic rings in their molecular structure are known as aliphatic compounds.

The table demonstrate the lists that IUPAC names assigned to simple continuous-chain alkanes from C-1 to C-10. A general "ane" suffix recognizes these compounds like alkanes. Longer chain alkanes are well known, and their names may be found in several text books and reference. Through decane the names methane should be remembered, because they constitute the root of various IUPAC names. Fortunately, general numerical prefixes that are used in naming chains of five or more carbon atoms. Illustrations of Simple Unbranched Alkanes are as follow:

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Some major behavior terminologies and trends:

(i)   The structures and formulas of these alkanes increase evenly by a CH2 increment.
 (ii)   Homologous is a uniform variation of this type in a series of compounds. 
(iii)   These formulas all fit the CnH2n+2 rule. This is also the highest possible H/C ratio for a            stable hydrocarbon. 
(iv)   Because the H/C ratio in these compounds is at a greatest, we call them saturated (with hydrogen).

Starting with butane (C4H10) and becoming more various with larger alkanes, we note the existence of the alkane isomers. For an instance, there are five C6H14 isomers, shown below in the diagram as abbreviated line formulas (A through E)

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IUPAC system needs first that we have names for simple unbranched chains, as described above, and second that for simple alkyl groups we have names that may be attached to the chains. Instances of some common alkyl groups are given in the table.

Note: the "ane" suffix is substituted by "yl" in naming groups. The notation R is used to designate a generic alkyl group.

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For the above isomers of hexane IUPAC names are:   B  2-methylpentane    C  3-methylpentane    D  2,2-dimethylbutane    E  2,3-dimethylbutane

Halogen substituents are simply accommodated, using the names: chloro (Cl-), fluoro (F-), iodo (I-) and bromo (Br-). For an instances, (CH3)2CHCH2CH2Br would be named 1-bromo-3-methylbutane. An alternative "alkyl halide" name may be employed If the halogen is bonded to a simple alkyl group. So, C2H5Cl can be named ethyl chloride or chloroethane. Halogenated alkyl substituent like trichloromethyl, CCl3,  and bromomethyl, BrCH2  may be listed and are alphabetized as per their full names.

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