Microprocessor or processor is the heart of the computer and carry out all the computational tasks, calculations & data processing etc. inside the computer.  It is the brain of the computer. In the computers, the most popular kind of the processor is the Intel Pentium chip and the Pentium 1V is the latest chip by Intel Corporation. The microprocessors can be classified depends on the following features.

Instruction Set:

Instruction Set is the set of the instructions that the Microprocessor can execute.


The number of bits processed via the processor in a single instruction.

Clock Speed:

It is measured in the MHz and determines that how several instructions a processor can processed.

The speed of the microprocessor is measured in the GHz or MHz.  The processor is also called as the CPU (Central Processing Unit). This contains the arithmetic unit and control unit and both works together to process the commands. CPU is employed in every computer whether it is a server, workstation or a laptop.  It is a inclusive computational engine that is designed as a chip.  CPU begins the work while you turn on your computer.

CPU is designed to carry out the arithmetic operations and logical operations inside the computer.  Common operations inside the computer include subtracting, adding multiplying, comparing the values and fetching the distant numbers to process them.  The higher the CPU clocks’ speed the more efficient will be the performance of the computer.

Computer’s performance is also influenced by the system memory used, bus architecture, type of the processor and software program being running.  Pentium 4 is the fastest type of the Intel’s processor that has 125,000,000 transistors & operates at the speed of 3.6 GHz.

Bus architecture of 8085:

Bus is a bundle of wires.

It is used to transfer information among different elements of microprocessor. Information such as address, data and element of microprocessor such as memory, 1/0 devices.

Bus is divided into three categories as data bus, address bus, & control bus. So all these buses are carry information about data, address and control but also linked microprocessor to memory (RAM or ROM) and I/O devices.

1775_8085 bus architecture.jpg

(a) Address Bus:

Address Bus is bus which carries the address of I/O location or memory location. It is also called unidirectional bus. In 8085 the address bus is 16-bit (A0 — A15). The 8085 microprocessor has 16-bit address bus to access memory; thus it can access 216 = 64KB memory locations.

(b) Data Bus:

Data Bus is bus which used to transfer, information among I/0 devices, microprocessor, and memory. It is also called as bi-directional bus. The number of data lines utilized in the data bus is equal to the size of data word being read or written. It is time multiplexed with lower order address bus.

(c) Control Bus:

Control Bus is bus which is essential to Control the direction of data flow on the bidirectional data bus and to differentiate between an I/O address and a memory address. Some of the control bus signals are follows:

  • Memory writer
  • Memory read
  • I/O writes.
  • I/O read

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