Breeding experiments

Breeding experiments:

Increase in population has enforced us to perform continuous scientific experiments for the following reasons. That is:

A. To develop more food crops
B. To increase quality in food crops and
C. To have sustainable food quality in food crops and assured food supply.

Through introducing specialized technology, plant breeders are now capable to grow more crops that they multiply and supply them to the growers. Enhancement in the genetic composition of plants is known as plant breeding.

Major aspects of plant breeding include:

1. Creation of helpful variation in the cultivable crops.
2. Selection of better crops.
3. Conducting or carrying out breeding experiments to assess the quality of the crop and
4. Release of a range after their extensive multiplication.

Aims of plant breeding

The first and primary purpose in plant breeding is to form useful variation in the crop plant. This can be acquired through the following measures.

1. To cultivation bringing wild food crops. (Wheat, oats and several cereal crops were once wild plants that had now been domesticated).

2. Acquiring genes from desirable plants or related species (example as seeds from several parts of the world).

3. Introduction of plants from close by regions or even from other countries for enhancement of the crop. (Example cauliflower, tomato, potato and soyabeans).

4. Through using particular plant breeding techniques, new varieties are developed.  Example maize, sorghum, cotton and sunflower.

5. Allopolyploid and Auto breeding.

6. Through inducing mutations by using physical and chemical mutagens.

7. Production of haploids through the application of plant tissue culture of anther and ovary.

8. Enhancement of nutritional quality through genetic engineering (example Fortified rice - iron rich rice and carotene rich rice).

9. Development of disease, drought and environmental stress resistant varieties.

Aspects of plant breeding

Current day crop plants are from wild species reared through thoroughly domestication, cultivation and management. We have various wild ranges that existing in nature just like in the case of salinity tolerant wild rice. By gene manipulation, the gene for salinity tolerance could be cloned in a rice variety. In such type of those areas in which shortage of fresh water available, rice can be cultivated by using seawater and can even be grown up in great saline soil. Likewise, we require several more such types of wild plants displaying increased capacity to extremes of climatic conditions and disease resistance for plant breeding programs. In order to protect the biodiversity and fixed significant valuable crops from going into extinction, scientists are protecting these crops through establishing gene / germplasm banks through preserving their seeds.


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