Breeding for disease resistance

Breeding for disease resistance:

Several crop plants undergo from various diseases caused by pathogens like bacteria, nematodes, fungi, viruses, protozoa and mycoplasma. In vegetative propagated plants such as cassava, potato, sugarcane and dahlia, viral pathogens are transformed by their roots, bulbs, tubers, and rhizomes. Disease free plants are acquired through shoot apical meristem culture method.  Plants increased by tissue culture are free from pathogens that are extensively cultivated.

When, a trait that displays disease resistance in a plant is discovered, the best way to transfer which trait to other helpful crop is by the technique of backcross. Repeated back crosses are effort with the parent crop with more wanted characters and such type of a crop is termed as recurrent parent. For instance, A is a non-recurrent parent and B* is a recurrent parent with wanted trait.

Genetic engineering

Genetic engineering will allow the plant or animal breeder to choose the specific gene from one plant and after that place similar gene into other plant for it to express its wanted character. Today, genetic engineering is extensively used like a tool in modern crop enhancements. Recombinant DNA technology, commonly termed ‘gene cloning’ or ‘genetic engineering’ propose limitless opportunities for forming new combination of genes that at the moment do not available within natural conditions. Genetic engineering can be described as the creation of new combinations of heritable material through the insertion of foreign nucleic acid molecule from other sources.

The foreign genes are usually included into a host organism either by a bacterial plasmid or by a virus that works as vectors (vehicular traffic). Genes are compared to biological software and are the programs which force the growth development and functioning of an organism.   Through changing the software in an exact and controlled way, it becomes feasible to generate wanted changes in the characteristics of the organisms. Example E. coli is made to generate human insulin through introduction of human insulin generating gene into bacterial plasmid.

Genetic engineering is a tool employed in modern crop enhancement programs. Its purpose is to isolate and take out a gene/genes into a crop plant which generally does not possess them. Addition of genes or DNA or foreign genes from one plant or a microbe to other plant is known as transgenic plant. Saline resistance, Herbicide resistance, altered flower color; enhanced protein quality and protection against viral infection are few instances of recently created transgenic higher plants through using this technology example tomato, Tobacco, potato, apple and sunflower.


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