Active transport

Active transport:

Cells must be transport substances against the concentration gradient that is from low concentrations to high concentrations. This transport known as active transport is a thermodynamically unfavourable reaction. Therefore, it requires energy to drive the reaction that is obtained by ATP hydrolysis. Active transport is as well mediated through carrier proteins and they are known as pumps. Na+K+ ATPases that is needed to keep the potassium concentration high in the cell and sodium concentrations low is an instance for pumps.


The active process of engulfing large size particles of food substances/foreign substances are known as Endocytosis. Depending on the nature of the material which is ingested, endocytosis might be categorized into two types.

1. Pinocytosis, where the fluid material is engulfed and
2. Phagocytosis, where large sized solid material is engulfed.

Throughout the process, the plasma membrane invaginates into small pockets that draw fluids from the surroundings in the cell. At last, these pockets pinch off and are termed as pinosomes/phagosomes that fuse with lysosomes and liberate their contents into the cell cytosol.

The procedure of exudating the secretory products from the cells are known as Exocytosis. Vesicles consisting of secretory materials fuse along with the plasma membrane and discharge the contents of them into the exterior. Pancreatic cells distribute their enzyme secretions to the exterior through exocytosis.

                                Table: Similarities and differences between facilitated diffusion and active transport

28_table transport.jpg


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