Dyeing Mechanisms, Chemistry tutorial

Definition of natural dyes

The word 'natural dye' covers all the dyes obtained from the natural sources as plants, animal and minerals. Natural dyes are frequently non-substantive and must be applied on textiles via the assist of mordants, generally a metallic salt, having an affinity for both the colouring matter and the fibre. Transition metal ions frequently have strong co-ordinating power and/or capable of shaping week to medium attraction/interaction forces and therefore can act as bridging substance to generate substantively of natural dyes/colourants whenever a textile substance being impregnated through these metallic salt (for example mordanted) is subjected to dyeing by different natural dyes, generally having several mordant able groups facilitating fixation of these dye/colourant. Such metallic mordants after combining by dye in the fibre, it shapes an insoluble precipitate or lake and therefore together the dye and mordant get fixed to happen to wash fast to a sensible level.


The application of color-producing agents to substance generally fibrous or film, in order to inform a degree of color permanence required through the projected end utilizes. True dyeing covers mechanisms in that molecules of substance to be dyed become engaged via different means through the molecules of the coloring matter, or little aggregates thereof. There is several overlapping between true dyeing and other techniques of coloring, which are termed dyeing in the industry. Products that are generally dyed comprise textile fibers, plastic films, anodized aluminum, fur, wood, paper, leather, and several foodstuffs.

Dyeing is completed through dissolving or dispersing the colorant in an appropriate vehicle (generally water) and bringing this system into contact by the substance to be dyed. Even though many dye molecules or aggregates might adhere to the substance surface when they meet, dyeing doesn't happen until the adhering dye particles migrate inside the fibers or films. Every dyeing procedure is designed to complete ultimately penetration of the undyed material via the colorant.

Assistants are materials that don't impart color to the creation to be dyed but endorse or retard dyeing. Generally, they influence the dye molecule.

Swelling agents are associates that open up the structure of the fiber temporarily so that dye molecules or aggregates might enter more liberally and reach or else unapproachable dye sites.

Carriers are agents (frequently solvents of low water solubility) that speed up dyeing via breaking up or dissolving dye aggregates and carrying them to the fiber-water boundary in a size small sufficient to be absorbed via the substance.

Dye retarders are a group of dyeing assistants, generally inorganic or organic salts that slow up the dyeing procedure via forming evanescent compounds through the dye, via buffering or depressing the ionization of an acid assistant, or via temporarily engaging the more active or more available dye sites on the fiber, afterward to be dislodged there from through the dye.

After treating agents are salts, resins, or other products (more frequently applied to cellulosic fibers) to render the colored fabric more resistant to the consequences of washing, perspiration, or fading via ozone or combustion gases. More frequently than not, their application reasons a loss in light fastness of the dyed substance.


Cellulose fibers, these as cotton and rayon, are mainly usually dyed through fascination of the fibers in a solution of straight dyes using an electrolyte these as ordinary salt as assistant and then boiling this dyebath. These dyeing generally exhibit only profitable (minimum) resistance to washing. Management of the properly dyed fibers through resins and copper, for instance, raises the resistance to washing by minimum loss of light resistance.

Synthetic fibers, these as cellulose acetates and triacetate (Arnel), are dyed in a supension of solvent-soluble dyes via fascination. Polyamide synthetic fibers are dyed as wool through acid, metallized acid, neutral metallized, or fiber-reactive mordant dyes, azoics, and selected direct dyes from an acid bath. Particular procedures have as well been expanded for acrylic, polyester, and propylene fibers. See Textile chemistry

Nontextile materials

Anodized aluminum is eagerly dyed via many textile dyes. Light and weather confrontation undreamed of in textile applications of several of such similar dyes is achieved.

Paper pulp is generally dyed in the paper beater via dyes usually employed for cotton; on occasion, it is tinted via wool dyes, and it is frequently tinted through adding of pigments to the beater. Terminated paper is as well colored via passing it over rollers that provide dye or colored coatings to its surface (calender staining).

Leather is dyed at low temperatures through the classes of dyes normally utilized for wool and cotton. Formic acid is usually utilized to drain the dye. For dress gloves, leather is generally colored via affecting the dye on the grain plane, leaving the flesh side undyed. Leather is as well dyed through natural dyes these as logwood, fustic, and quercitron. Leather fresh from tanning and enclosing substantial moisture is dyed in Europe via tumbling through dry water-soluble dye.

Most food products that are artificially colored aren't in fact dyed. Maraschino cherries, though, are dyed for numerous hours through food dyes, then washed and situated in flavored syrup.

Many plastic substances might be dyed via procedures similar to those employed for textiles. Nylon, cellulose acetate, polyethylene, polypropylene, and polyester resins are dyeable through dyes that color these materials in yarn form.

Process of Dyeing

  • Two ways of attaining completely even distribution to dyestuff in acrylic fiber- Migration properties of the dyestuff can be utilized to obtain desired consequence, offered the dyestuff isn't instantly fixed during adsorption on fiber surface and fiber sites having affinity for dye stuffs are allocated evenly in fiber. The buildup of dyestuff during 1st phase of dyeing can be controlled so that no migrations occur after absorption.

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