#### Electricity-Magnetism and Modern Physics, Physics tutorial

Electricity comes from atoms. The atoms are extremely small particles. The whole thing in the world is made up of atoms. Inside each and every atom are even smaller particles. They comprise ones termed as electrons and protons. Such particles encompass a feature termed as electric charge. Protons contain a charge which scientists call positive. Electrons contain an opposite charge, termed as negative. Such charges are the source of electricity.

Charges of the similar type repel each other. It signifies that they push one other away. Charges which are opposite attract each other. Therefore two protons or two electrons repel each other. However a proton and an electron are attracted to one other.

The number of protons and electrons in an atom is generally equivalent. As the charges are equivalent in number, they cancel each other out. The atom is neutral, signifying it consists of no charge.

An atom can add an electrical charge. It can do that by obtaining additional electrons. Or it can do it by losing electrons. Atoms can lose or gain electrons if they contact other atoms.

When an atom obtains additional electrons, it consists of a negative charge. When it loses electrons, the protons will outnumber the electrons; therefore the atom will encompass a positive charge. An atom which consists of a charge is termed as an ion. An atom having more electrons than protons is a negative ion. The atom having more protons than electrons is a positive ion.

Two Kinds of Electricity:

There are two types of electricity: static electricity and electric currents.

Static Electricity:

Static electricity is mainly caused if particles of opposite charge get separated. The two types of particles are attracted to one other. If the attraction becomes strong adequate, the particles rapidly stream back altogether.

Lightning is mainly caused in a storm cloud if particles of opposite charge build up in dissimilar areas. If the groups of charges get large adequate, they flow rapidly back altogether. That causes a lightning flash.

Most of the lightning takes place up in the clouds. However, at times the separation of charges occurs between the ground and the clouds. The particles then flow down to the ground. This is the type of lightning which hits trees and buildings.

You can craft a spark through scuffing your shoes on a carpet if the air is dry. Doing that causes your body to pick up electrons from the carpet. Your body now consists of a negative charge. Whenever you put your finger close to a metal object, a spark will jump from your finger.

Electric Current:

An electric current is the flow of electrons via a material. Materials which carry a current are termed as conductors. Metals are the best conductors; therefore electrical wires are made up of metal. Most of the wires which are employed to carry an electric current are made up of copper.

Materials which don't conduct electricity are termed as insulators. Plastic and rubber and are both good insulators. Most of the electrical wires are wrapped in rubber. The rubber prevents shocks.

The electric current requires a complete path in which to move. The path is termed as a circuit. Whenever a circuit is broken then the current stops flowing.

We are familiar that there are two types of electricity. There are as well two types of electric current. They are termed as direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC). Batteries employ DC. The wall outlets in your home use AC. The electrons in a DC circuit for all time move in the similar direction. The electrons in an AC circuit move quickly back and forth.

Both types of current make a flow of electrical energy which flow moves extremely fast. If electrons begin moving in a circuit, energy fills the whole circuit right away. This describes why a lamp lights up as soon as you flip a switch.

Measuring Electricity:

Electrons require a push to get moving in a wire. This push is termed as voltage. Voltage is evaluated in units termed as volts. In most of the cases, the more volts an energy source has, the greater the push and flow of energy. Most of the flashlight batteries have mere 1.5 volts. House wiring is around 120 volts.

The flow of current in a circuit is evaluated in units termed as amperes. Such units are generally termed as amps for short. The more electrons which are in motion in a wire, is the higher the number of amps. The other measure employed in electricity is the watt. It evaluates how fast electrical energy is being employed.

What produces magnetism?

We are familiar that electricity and magnetism are associated. It is considered as two parts of force termed as Electromagnetism. Magnetism emerges from the electrons in an atom. Electrons revolve just like little tops. And each and every electron consists of an invisible area of magnetism. This area is termed as magnetic field. In several metals, the spinning of electrons turns each and every atom into a small magnet. Such atoms can be made up of to line up in the similar direction. Then the whole piece of metal becomes magnetic. Most of the magnets are made up of iron.

Magnets are the strongest at their ends. These ends are termed as poles. Similar to Earth, a magnet consists of a north pole and a south pole. When you cut a bar magnet into two halves, each and every piece is a new magnet. Both of the new magnets encompass a North and South Pole.

A magnet's poles behave similar to negative and positive electrical charges. Two south or two north poles repel each other. However the north pole of a magnet is attracted to the south pole of the other magnet. A magnet is as well strongly attracted to steel and iron. That is as its magnetic field makes a magnetic pull on the atoms in the metal.

Magnetism and Electric Currents:

A magnet can be made with wire, an electric current, and an iron bar. A wire carrying current has a small magnetic field around it. When a wire having current is coiled up, the magnetic field gets stronger. When the wire is wrapped around an iron bar, the bar becomes a magnet. This kind of magnet is termed as an electromagnet. The electromagnet merely works if current is moving via the wire. When the current is turned off, the magnetism stops.

Producing Electricity:

Now you know how electricity can be used to make a magnet. But did you know that magnets can also be used to make electricity? Scientists learned how to do this in the 1800s. They discovered that if a coil of wire is moved through a magnetic field, an electric current flows through the wire. The same thing happens in reverse, when a magnet is moved through a coil of wire.

Scientists make use of that discovery to build machines termed as electrical generators. Cities, once generally dark at night, became bright having electric lighting. Nowadays, generators having large, powerful magnets are employed to produce electricity. This significant form of energy is employed to give light and power for homes, offices and factories.

The electricity we use on a daily basis is generated at power plants. Such places utilize huge generators to make AC current. Electromagnets in the generators spin inside the coils of wire. Three main energy sources spin the magnets. They are steam, rushing water and wind.

Steam:

Most of the power plants generate electricity by boiling water to make steam. There are quite a few ways they do this:

• Through burning coal or oil.
• Through discharging the energy in atoms.
• Through employing focused sunlight.

The steam generated in power plants spins big blades in a machine termed as a turbine. The turbine is joined to the magnets in a generator. As the turbine blades spin, they form the magnets spin. The moving magnets generate an electric current.

Water:

Some of the power plants are part of big dams. A dam stops the flow of a rivet then a big lake forms behind the dam. Water from the lake rushes via openings at the bottom of the dam. The water spins the blades of turbines. The turbines are joined to magnets in a generator. The spinning turbine blades craft the magnets spin.

Wind:

The power of wind can as well be employed to make electricity. This is completed with machines termed as wind turbines. They look similar to huge airplane propellers. The turbines transfer their energy to the generator.

Delivering Electricity:

Current leaving a power plant has to go a long way prior to it gets used. It is passed via a big device termed as a transformer.

The transformer greatly raises the voltage of the current. The additional volts 'push' the electricity long distances via cables.

The electricity in the cables is too strong to be employed in factories and homes. The voltage should be decreased first. This is completed by using other type of transformer, far from the power station. This transformer lowers the voltage to around 120 volts.

Electricity and Magnetism in Today's World:

For thousands of years, people had no electricity. Work was completed through the muscles of animals and people. Candles and oil lamps are the source of light. Magnetism was somewhat in unusual rocks termed as lodestones. Lightning was a mystery. No one understands magnetism and electricity. And they had no idea that the two things are associated.

However nowadays, electricity and magnetism are well understood and broadly employed. Magnets are utilized in computer hard drives, credit cards, stereo speakers and many other devices. And we are familiar that, big magnets are employed at power plants to produce electricity. Electricity powers most of the things we make use of in our daily lives. More than ever, we based on electrical energy.

Modern Physics:

The word modern physics signifies to the post-Newtonian conception of physics. In simpler form, modern physics mainly deals by the underlying structure of the smallest particles in nature (that is, quantum mechanics), and as well a rigorous understanding of the basic interaction of particles, understood as forces. Small velocities and big distances is generally the realm of classical physics. Modern physics frequently comprises extreme conditions; quantum effects generally comprise distances comparable to atoms (around 10-9 m), whereas relativistic effects generally comprise velocities comparable to the speed of light (roughly 108 m/s).

The word 'modern physics' means that classical explanations of phenomena are lacking and that an exact, 'modern', explanation of reality needs theories to incorporate the elements of quantum mechanics or Einsteinium relativity, or both. In common, the word is employed to refer to any branch of physics either developed in the early 20th century and onwards, or branches greatly persuaded by early 20th century physics.

Father of Modern Physics:

The Modern physics is a branch of physics existing subsequent to Newton. The classical physics was not adequate to resolve and describe the existing problems and therefore modern physics came into existence. Einstein is known as the father of modern physics. He was the one who came up with most of the theories and concepts of modern physics. For illustration the theory of relativity was introduced by him. Albert Einstein turned the scientific world on its head when he figured out E = mc2, the formula which stated that energy and mass were in reality the similar thing that is, the capability to do work and the material to do work with.

Einstein's equation:

E = mc2

Einstein changed the manner we think about space, time and matter. His contribution to theoretical physics was important adequate to award him with Nobel Prize. Therefore he is rightly justified as the Father of Modern Physics.

Particle Physics:

Particle physics is the study of the basic constituents of matter and the forces of nature. This branch of science mainly deals with the particles which make up matter. The interaction among such particles and their existence is studied in the particle physics. The standard model is the latest model which explains the existence of particles which make up matter, any some basic interaction amongst them. These are the strong, weak and also electromagnetic interactions. It illustrates the existence of 24 basic particles and predicts the existence of Higgs Boson. The word 'particle physics' generally signifies to the study of 'smallest' particles and the fields which must be stated in order to describe the observed particles that are the constituents of matter.

Particle physics aims to build up basic models, conduct experiments and so on for the discovery of latest basic particles which make up matter.

Nuclear Physics:

Nuclear Physics is the branch of science which mainly deals by the study of basic particles namely nucleus, the constituents and interactions of the atomic nuclei. Nuclei are building up of protons and neutrons bound altogether by the strong force. Both neutrons and protons are termed to as nucleons. A heavy nucleus can have hundreds of nucleons wherein the nucleus consists of an energy that occurs partially from surface tension and partially from the electrical repulsion of the protons. Nuclear physics mainly deals through the study of structure and components of nucleus. Different models associated to the nucleus and their growth through different scientists, their experiments, theories and so on are part of the Nuclear Physics.

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