DOD Model

Introduction to DOD Model

DOD terms stands for the department of Defence. From last 35 years it is becoming very active in system and software development. DOD model basically is based on the waterfall model only. If follows the linear, sequential steps resulting in the development   of a software product. The DOD model structure is shown in fig 2.13.

DOD model encompasses the similar phases as of waterfall model. It includes some more additions in it.

1. The system design is included as the primary phase of this model.

2. The software design phase is divided into the two phase's preliminary software design and detailed software design.

3. The integration and test phase is separated for software and system concern.

These three inclusions make the differences between the classic waterfall model and the DOD model. The   description of various phases of DOD model is given below:

1. System Design: System design is the first phase of the DOD model. In this phase, the system components are assigned their function and performance.  So the software component will also be allocated its function and performance. At the end of these phases, SDR is conducted. SDR refers to a process to check, whether all the requirements to the software components are properly allocated.

2. Analysis: Analysis phase consists of two sub phases: concept formation and development of software specification. They have been described in section 2.3, 2.4, 2.1; the concept formation phase is reviewed, named as SSR. During this review, the acceptance of the allocation to requirements is major concern. At the end of this complete analysis phase, SRS is produced.

3. Preliminary Software Design: In this phase, the initial software designing in performed at small scale. PDR is performed at the end of this phase, which reviews, the SRS document.

4. Detailed Software Design:  This elaborates the preliminary software design step in detail. A SDD document is produced as the result of this phase which is reviewed.  Named as CDR.

5. Code and Unit test; the modules   are coded using a specified programming language and they are unit tested.

6. Software Integration and Test: In this phase all the modules are integrated with each other and then complete software product is tested for verification and validation.  TRR is required at the end of his phase. TRR reviews all the documents manuals etc. Which are made during the phase? Additionally, this phase also review the test plans, procedures, test cases etc. The purpose of the TRR is to ensure that all the plans and documents required for performance of the testing are complete and sufficient for the test phase.

7. System Integration and Test; During this phase, all the components of the system are combined together to form it as a whole. And then system testing is performed and reviewed as FCA and PCA for functionally and physically reviewing. Operational timelines is also included in this phase which is a description to develop a written description of the step by step operation of the current system.

The main concept in this model is that many of the phases are divided into its sub phases, so that all the phase work can be performed adequately and efficiently.  Secondly, it can also be seen that at the end of each phase, a review is conducted to evaluate the work done previously.


  • Prepare Documents and Conduct Review: This model process is well documented. The document content, matter and reviews are well defined.
  • Satisfaction of Requirements: The reviews are conducted at the end of each phase. Firstly this model describes the many and even some phases are also divided into sub phases. And secondly, the reviews are conducted regularly, then it can be properly checked that all the documents meet the unique needs of a particular project.
  • Good Experience: There is substantial experience with the process.


  • Incompatibility with ADA Language and Expert System Development: This process is thought as inadequate and improper with ADA language and experts system development.
  • Involvement of Users No: This model process does not involve the users and operations of the system for evaluation.
  • Costly: This process is very much expensive because of more phases and reviews criteria.

Reorganization of Concurrent Nature: this process sometime is not able to recognize the concurrent and iterative nature of the process.

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