Basic Steps in PERT-CPM

Basic Steps in PERT-CPM

Project scheduling by PERT / CPM comprises of four main steps


  • The planning phase is initiated by dividing the total project in to small projects. These smaller projects are then divided into activities and are examined by the department or section.
  • The relationship of each activity regarding other activities are defined and recognized and the corresponding responsibilities and the authority are also clear.
  • Therefore the possibility of overlooking any job essential for the completion of the project is reduced considerably.


  • The final purpose of the scheduling phase is to make a time chart showing the start and finish times for all activities as well as its relationship with other activities of the project.
  • In addition the schedule must identify the critical path activities which need special attention if the project is to be finished in time.
  • For non-critical activities, the schedule have to show the amount of slack or float times which can be utilized advantageously when such activities are postponed or when limited resources are to be utilized efficiently.

Allocation of resources

  • Allocation of resources is done to get the desired objective. A resource is a physical variable like finance, labour, equipment and space which will force a restriction on time for the project.
  • When resources are restricted and conflicting, demands are made for the similar type of resources a systematic method for allotment of resources become necessary.
  • Resource allocation generally incurs a compromise and the selection of this compromise depends on the decision of managers.


  • The last phase in project management is controlling. Critical path methods assist the application of the principle of management by expectation to recognize areas that are important to the completion of the project.
  • By having progress reports time to time and updating the network constantly, a enhanced financial as well as technical control over the project is exercised.
  • Arrow diagrams and time charts are utilized for generating periodic progress reports. If necessary, a new course of action is resolute for the left over portion of the project.