Blood Group Typing:
Before doing transplantation the cells of donors and recipient must be matched by matching blood group antigens and histocompatibility antigens.
Donors and Recipients are typed for RBC antigens. Differences in MHC antigens and blood group antigens are responsible for most of the graft–refusals.
Different tissue typing procedures have been generated to find out the potential donor and recipient. Primarily both are screened for ABO blood–group compatibility. The blood group antigens are stated on RBCs, epithelial cells and endothelial cells. When antibodies are generated to any of these antigens exists on the graft that will induce antibody mediated complement lysis.MHC antigen typing:
HLA typing of potential donors and a recipient can be identified with a microcytotoxicity test. In a microtitre plate, white blood cells from donors and recipient are dispersed into a sequence of wells and then antibodies particular for different Class I and Class II MHC alleles are added to diverse wells. After incubation complement is added to the wells. When the white blood cells have MHC antigens for which particular antibody is added, the cells are lysed upon addition of complement. Such dead cells will take up a dye like trypan blue. Antibody mediated microcytotoxicity will point out the existence or absence of MHC allele.
Cell mediated graft refusal takes place in two stages:
1. Sensitization stage2. Effector stage
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