Introduction to Database:Database is an assortment of related data. A Database management system is software designed to assist the maintenance and utilization of large scale collection of data. DBMS came into subsistence in 1960 by Charles. Integrated data store which is as well called as the first general purpose DBMS. Yet again in 1960 IBM brought IMS-Information management system. In 1970 Edgor Codd at IBM arrives with new database called RDBMS. In 1980 subsequently came SQL Architecture- Structure Query Language. In 1980 to 1990 there were move ahead in DBMS example DB2 and ORACLE.
a) Data is raw fact or else figures or entity.b) When activities in the organization occurs the effect of these activities need to be recorded which is known as Data.
a) Processed data is entitled as informationb) The intention of data processing is to generate the information required for carrying out the business activities.
In general data management contains following tasks:
a) Data capture - Which is the task related with gathering the data as and when they originate.
b) Data classification - Captured data has to be classified on the basis of nature and intended usage.
c) Data storage - The segregated data has to be stored correctly.
d) Data arranging - It is extremely important to arrange the data properly
e) Data retrieval Data will be essential frequently for further processing Therefore it is very important to create some indexes so that data can be retrieved Database Management System easily.
f) Data maintenance - Maintenance is the task anxious with keeping the data upto- date.
g) Data Verification - Prior to storing the data it must be verified for any error.
h) Data Coding - Data will be coded for uncomplicated reference.
i) Data Editing - Editing means re-arranging the data or else modifying the data for presentation.
j) Data transcription - This is the action where the data is converted from one form into another.
k) Data transmission - This is a task where data is forwarded to the place where it would be used further.
Metadata (Meta data or on occasion Meta information) is data about data of any sort in any media. An item of metadata may perhaps describe a collection of data including multiple content items and hierarchical levels for instance a database schema. In data processing meta data is definitional data that offers information about or documentation of other data managed within an application or environment. The term must be used with caution as all data is about something and is therefore metadata.
a) Database may be defined in easy terms as a collection of data
b) A database is a assortment of related data.
c) The database is able to be of any size and of varying complexity.
d) A database may be generated as well as maintained manually or it may be computerized.
e) A Database Management System (DBMS) is a collection of program that facilitates user to create and maintain a database.
f) The DBMS is therefore a general purpose software system that facilitates the process of defining constructing and manipulating database for various applications.
Characteristics of DBMS:
• To incorporate the necessities of the organization system should be designed for easy maintenance.• Information systems must allow interactive access to data to obtain new information without writing fresh programs.• System must be designed to co-relate different data to meet new requirements.• An independent central repository which provides information and meaning of available data is required.• Integrated database will assist in understanding the inter-relationships between data stored in different applications.• The stored data must be made available for access by different users simultaneously.• Automatic recovery feature has to be offered to overcome the problems with processing system failure.
A data loading utility:This permits simple loading of data from the external format without writing programs.
A backup utility:This permits making copies of the database periodically to help in cases of crashes and disasters.
Recovery utility:This allows reconstructing the correct state of database from the backup and history of transactions.
Monitoring tools:This monitors the performance therefore that internal schema can be changed and database access can be optimized.
File organization:Which permits restructuring the data from one type to another?
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