Classics and the Modern World:
These are the study of the culture, languages, history and thought of the civilizations of ancient Rome and Greece. It is one of the most interdisciplinary and varied of all subjects; depend upon a broad range of options, the course offers the chance to study literature (historical writing, epic, drama, and much else), the archaeology and history of the Roman and Greek Mediterranean, philosophy (both modern and ancient), and linguistics.
Usually the study of Classics spans the period from the Homeric poems of the eighth century BC to the late Roman Empire of the sixth or fifth centuries AD (sometimes beginning with the Mycenean world or Aegean prehistory, and by including the early Byzantine Empire). Therefore Classics proper covers the literatures and languages of two major cultures (Latin and Greek); the history of the ancient Mediterranean & the contacts the empires of Rome and Macedon made with other cultures in the North Africa, Near East and across Europe; the religion and mythology of the Greco-Roman pagans, plus the Jews, Christians, Mithraists and others in the Roman Empire; the science, philosophy, historiography, and theology of these cultures; archaeology and art; social history including, private lives, sometimes with special emphasis on the roles of women, foreigners, slaves. In other terms, any aspect of any culture that spoke Latin or Greek within the Mediterranean world within the chronological limits given above is fair game.
Typically Modernity refers to a post-medieval historical period, post-traditional one marked by the move from feudalism (or agrarianism) toward industrialization, capitalism, rationalization, secularization, the nation-state and its constituent institutions and forms of surveillance.
Theoretically, modernity associates to modernism and modern era, but forms a different concept. While the Enlightenment (ca. 1650–1800) invokes a particular movement in Western philosophy, modernity tends to refer only to the social relations related with the rise of capitalism. Modernity may also refer to tendencies in intellectual culture, specifically the movements intertwined along with post-industrial life and secularization, like existentialism, Marxism and the formal establishment of social science. In context, modernity has been related with intellectual and cultural movements of 1436–1789 and extending to the year of 1970s or later (Toulmin 1992).
In the Modern World a classic brings together a collection of distinguished international contributors to discuss the features and implications of a 'democratic turn' in modern perceptions of ancient Rome and Greece. It examines how Roman and Greek material has been involved along with issues of democracy, both in political culture and in the greater diffusion of classics in recent times outside the elite classes.
How Classics Influenced The Modern World:
While people mention the roots of heritage and western culture, they frequently refer to classic Rome, Greece and Judaism. However, all three seem to have drawn their inspiration in various (possibly even occasionally illicit) ways from the leading spiritual & economic superpower of the ancient Classics.
In spite of many modern inventions, and the mastery of materials like concrete, steel power glue etc., the achievements of Ancient Egypt remain unsurpassed. In various ancient civilizations like the Mesopotamians' and Egyptians' architecture and urbanism reflected the constant engagement along with and the supernatural and the divine .In some way highly sophisticated craftsmanship developed over not much more than a hundred years, beginning in the 3rd dynasty. Various design elements of the Kufu’s Pyramid, like highly complicated shafts remain a mystery.
With the onset of the 20th century, systematic archeology exploration led to spectacular discoveries. Various royal tombs, like King Tut’s, yielded treasures of jewelry in addition to wooden furniture. The explorers were awe-struck: In the tombs Royal furniture found surpassed contemporaneous products both in terms of finish, and also artistically. In such manner it influenced Art Deco of the twenties and thirties.
Astronomy, Astrology & Time:
Only our modern world distinguishes among astrology and astronomy. In the ancient world, time keeping, celestial observations, and prediction of fate and future were one single ‘science.’ Egyptian astronomers calculated the length of a solar year with an accuracy of six minutes, then divided the year into twelve month, a month into four weeks, and a day into 24 hours etc. This system proved to be highly accurate and successful, as it reflected the cycle of the seasons correctly. It also replaced the cumbersome and unreliable lunar calendars (the word ‘month’ and ‘moon’ have the same root).
Canals & Land Lease:
It is questionable who invented irrigation. Examples of early irrigation works are found in ancient China, Mesopotamia, and Egypt. Geometry, Land Value, Land Taxation:
The construction of the pyramids needed some form of advanced mathematics, possibly including geometry. On a more mundane level, geometry was employed for the design of irrigation canals, and to assign property.
Modern medicine owes much to the Ancient Egyptians. Most popular of the Egyptian physicians is Imhotep, who is also renowned for his role as a Pyramid designer. Physicians like Imhotep employed a variety of methods to heal patients however based much of their practice upon religious belief: In Ancient Egypt physicians were also priests. It was common for distinct priests to act as physicians for distinct parts of the body, in much the similar way that doctors specialize now, as they believed that distinct gods governed distinct sectors of the human body.
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