Introduction to Physical Chemistry III, Chemistry tutorial

Introduction to Physical chemistry:

We all are familiar that millions of chemical compounds are in existence. The ways in which such compounds and their constituents react and interact by one another is regulated by some physical principles which describe their behavior. Physical chemistry is thus a foundation on which all the other fields of chemistry rest and this science is as well relevant to almost all the other scientific streams or fields.

Physical chemistry is the stream of chemistry concerned by the interpretation of the phenomena of chemistry in terms of the underlying principles of physics. This lies at the interface of chemistry and physics, inasmuch as it pull on the principles of physics (particularly quantum mechanics) to account for the phenomena of chemistry. It is as well a necessary component of the interpretation of the methods of investigation and their findings, specifically as these methods are becoming ever more sophisticated and as their complete potential can be realized only via strong theoretical backing. Physical chemistry as well consists of an essential role to play in the understanding of the complex methods and molecules features of biological systems and modern materials.

A few relationships which physical chemistry strives to resolve comprise the effects of:

1) Intermolecular forces which act on the physical properties of materials (like tensile strength, plasticity and surface tension in liquids).

2) Reaction kinetics on the rate of reaction.

3) The identity of ions and electrical conductivity of the materials.

4) Surface chemistry and electrochemistry of the membranes.

5) Interaction of one body by the other in terms of quantities of heat and work known as thermodynamics.

6) The transfer of heat between a chemical system and its surroundings throughout the change of phase or chemical reaction occurring known as Thermochemistry.

7) Study of Colligative properties of number of species present in the solution.

8) Number of stages, number of components and the degree of freedom (or variance) can be correlated with one other by the help of phase rule.

9) Reactions of the electrochemical cells.

Modern physical chemistry:

Modern physical chemistry is firmly grounded on applied mathematics and physics. Significant areas of study comprise Thermochemistry (that is, chemical thermodynamics), chemical kinetics, statistical chemistry, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics, electrochemistry, surface solid state chemistry and spectroscopy. Physical chemistry is as well base to modern materials science. Physical chemistry now strongly overlaps by the chemical physics.

Branches of Physical chemistry:

Physical chemistry is usually categorized into a number of disciplines; however the boundaries between them are imprecise. Physical chemistry is comprised by different subject areas, comprising thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, chemical kinetics, statistical thermodynamics and many more.

1) Thermodynamics:

Thermodynamics is basically the study of conversion of energy into heat and work. In this framework, work is stated as the energy transferred via a force; for illustration, kicking a ball is a kind of work in which the person who kicks the ball transfers force from their foot to the ball, causing the ball to move. Thermodynamics as well studies ways in which the conversion method can be modified by changing variables like pressure and temperature in a system.

2) Quantum chemistry:

Quantum chemistry is the theoretical science that illustrates how molecules bond to one other via applying principles of quantum field theory and quantum mechanics. Such principles illustrate how atoms and sub-atomic particles behave in different systems, and in turn administer how molecules behave. Theoretically all the chemical systems can be illustrated by using quantum chemistry, however in practice only very simple systems can be precisely investigated.

3) Chemical kinetics:

Chemical kinetics basically studies the rates of chemical methods. The rate of a particular chemical process is simply the speed at which the chemical reaction takes place. For illustration, contrast the rate of iron oxidation, which is an extremely slow process, with the rate of fuel combustion that is a split-second process. Chemical kinetics as well studies how changing variables like pressure and temperature vary the rate at which reactions take place.

4) Statistical thermodynamics:

The above three features of physical chemistry are associated by a fourth, termed as statistical thermodynamics. This field is mainly concerned with energy distribution in chemical systems, and as well links the macroscopic and microscopic worlds. The major goal of statistical thermodynamics is to interpret the macroscopic properties of different kinds of matter in relation to the interactions between their component microscopic molecules and particles.

5) Electrochemistry:

Electrochemistry is the stream or branch in the field of chemistry that comprises the intersection between the chemical reactions and electrical currents. Some of the chemical reactions can be catalyzed via the presence of an electrical current and on the contrary, it is possible to produce electricity via the process of a chemical reaction. As this pursuit might sound esoteric, chances are very high that you are benefiting from the electrochemistry at this very moment, or that you will be at some point today, as it is the underlying method behind a broad range of things, from chemical signaling in your own body to the operation of the car battery.

Electrochemistry is as well employed in scientific laboratories, for processing and examining a range of materials. It is as well employed in methods like electroplating, in which the property of electrodeposition is harnessed, and in the operation of batteries, which make use of a chemical reaction to produce electrical energy. The other illustration of a natural electrochemical reaction is corrosion, particularly iron oxidation, which is better termed as 'rust' among lay people.

6) Photochemistry:

Photochemistry is the stream or branch in the field of chemistry which is mainly focused on the study of chemical reactions that comprise light, either because light acts as the catalyst for reactions or because reactions produce light. On a more detailed level, it could be stated to comprise the study of the interactions between the photons and molecules. This field is highly interdisciplinary, by people in disciplines like biology and physics being interested in different features of photochemistry.

Photochemical reactions can occur in a variety of manners. Whenever molecules absorb a photon, they get excited, which can trigger a response like isomerization, in which the atoms in a molecule rearrange themselves, or a simple emission of light or the breaking or forging of chemical bonds. Some chemical reactions can as well yield in the emission of photons, the other topic of interest in photochemistry, and among mad scientists, if the glowing beakers in popular films are any sign.

7) Surface chemistry:

Surface chemistry is the study of chemical reactions in which the reactants are first adsorbed to a surface medium which then acts as the catalyst for reaction; after the reaction the products are desorbed and the surface is left unchanged. As the whole reaction occurs on the surface, the amount of surface area of catalyst per unit weight finds out the efficiency of the surface in the reaction. A few silica surfaces encompass over 200 square meters of surface area per gram. An illustration of a surface reaction is the reaction of the unsaturated organic molecule by hydrogen on finely divided platinum or by bromine on finely divided silica. Enzyme reactions can, in principle, as well be considered surface reactions, as the reaction occurs on the enzyme surface after the enzyme has bound the reactants; though, generally only heterogeneous (that is, two-phase) reactions are considered true surface reactions, whereas enzyme reactions are homogeneous (that is, one-phase) systems.

8) Spectroscopy:

This is the study of spectra of light or radiation. Spectroscopy relates to the dispersion of an object's light to its component colors (that is, energies). By performing this dissection and analysis of the object's light, astronomers can deduce the physical properties of that object (like mass, temperature, luminosity and composition).

Spectroscopy is mainly concerned by the experimental investigation of the structures of atoms and molecules, and the recognition of substances, via the observation of properties of the electromagnetic radiation absorbed, emitted and scattered by samples. Microwave spectroscopy is employed to monitor the rotations of molecules; infrared spectroscopy is employed to study their vibrations; and visible and ultraviolet spectroscopy is employed to study the electronic transitions and to infer details of the electronic structures. The extremely powerful method of nuclear magnetic resonance is now everywhere in chemistry. The detailed, quantitative interpretation of molecular and solid-state structure is mainly based in quantum theory and its use in the interpretation of the nature of the chemical bond. Diffraction studies, specifically x-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction studies give detailed information regarding the shapes of molecules, and x-ray diffraction studies are central to nearly the whole of molecular biology. The scattering of neutrons, in inelastic neutron scattering, provides detailed information regarding the motion of molecules in liquids. The bridge between thermodynamics and structural studies is known as statistical thermodynamics, in which the vast properties of substances are interpreted in terms of properties of their constituent molecules. The other main component is chemical kinetics, the study of the rates of chemical reactions; it analyzes, for illustration, how rates of reactions respond to the changes in conditions or the presence of a catalyst. Chemical kinetics is as well mainly concerned by the detailed methods through which a reaction occurs, the series of elementary methods that transform reactants into products, comprising chemical reactions at solid surfaces (like electrodes).

Importance of physical chemistry:

Throughout the late 19th century, physical chemistry played a vital role in Wilhelm Ostwald's and Jacobus Henricus van't Hoff's work on the chemical equilibrium. It as well played a significant role in Svante Arrhenius theory of ionization and redox-reactions. Most of the new materials formed to produce better chips for the computer industry, or compounds for the airplane and rocket industry are an outcome of the closely associated materials science. Lubricant, solvent, cleaning and plastic industries could not exist devoid of physical chemistry and particularly macromolecular chemistry. A better understanding of biological systems comes from the combination of physics, (physical) chemistry and biology in fields like biochemistry, biophysics, molecular genetics and molecular biology.

After 1900, the chemists start to get valuable assistance from physics regarding the electrical nature of the atom. This knowledge led to enhancements in X-rays diffraction and structural analyses and the assignment of atomic numbers to the elements, consecutively leading to a better systematic understanding of the elements, even to the point where new elements were predicted before they were in reality made in laboratories.

What is the difference between physical chemistry and inorganic chemistry?

Physical chemistry endeavors to bring to the fore the physical factors which compel or induce substances to react in the manner they appear to do. It genuinely tries to predict whether a specific transformation can occurs in a specific direction, under a given set of conditions, and if so, to what extent. It employs quantitative energy considerations to realize its objectives.

Inorganic chemistry, on contrary, tries to provide an account of the chemical elements and the different forms of matter which are possible whenever elements and their combinations interact by one other, under different conditions. It simply attempts to comprehend the different ways through which elements play their roles in composing poetry of nature known as matter.

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