Economic Sources-Industrial Methods of Polymers, Chemistry tutorial

Introduction

Industrial production of polymers is depends on how they can be economically attained. Many significant polymers are synthesized for economic reasons such as higher yields and durability. Starting substances are the raw materials from that polymer are made. They as well comprise probability of conditions for producing them and the total costs of production to build it fit and meet the reason for which they are made. We will be considering several instances. 

Main content  

Industrial production of polymers engages cheapest techniques of producing them, which embraces both cheap sources of the raw materials and feasibility through economic conditions of producing them.

  • Preferred techniques are preferences of economic sources of attaining beginning materials for the preparation of polymers. Producing them economically and efficiently is a main concern for the companies that manufacture them. A good illustration will be the manufacturing of polyethylene from ethylene. There are many processes for producing polythene for domestic and commercial purposes by various dissimilarities in their properties.

Polyethylene is significant for making nylon bags, disposable wraps, water bags and bottles, beach chairs and so on. Composition of polyethylene looks simple, but it isn't all that simple to generate. It is a calculation chain-growth polymerization reaction. The desirered should engage less stringent and outrageous conditions of high pressure and temperature. As well the softening temperature should be high. The density should be high, by appropriate textures [for example crystallizability, rigidity, softness, crispy feels, amorphous nature and so on].  

  • We will summarize the established process of producing polyethylene and provide justification(s) for each, to serve as illustration:

(i) Procedure of high pressure [ICI] technique entail minute amount of oxygen as free radical initiator on ethene at pressure of 1500 atm and temperature of 2000C.  

                         O2 initiator   

nCH2= CH2    1796_aro.jpg  [CH2-CH2] n    1796_aro.jpg  [e.g. n=103]

                     1500atm, 2000C    

The polymeric chain created is of low density of 0.92g/cm3 and has methyl branching.

(ii) Phillips procedure takes place between 150-1800C and 30-35atm, through chromium III oxide as catalyst and mixture of SiO2 and Al2O3 in ratio 9:1, via ionic mechanism. There is methyl branching on the polymeric chain structured by higher density of 0.96g/cm3, through softening temperature of 130-1360C. The conditions are a little less stringent than the high pressure technique and product is of higher density. 

(iii) Zeigler process occurs at 50-750C and 2-7atm that is quite moderate. TiCl4 and Al (CH3)3 act as catalyst as ethene is passed into it. Dilute acids decompose the catalysts after reaction is accomplished, followed by division of the product via filtration. Polymerization is via ionic mechanism. Product attained has moderate high density of 0.945cm3, through softening temperature of 120-1280C. 

The last 2 process are preferred; the polymer formed is of elevated density as all ionic mechanism, through molecules regularly packed and closer, therefore more rigid and crystalline. They have high tensile strength, elevated softening temperatures. 

  • Varieties of plastics

Plastics are extremely significant as containers. They come in varieties, and are frequently recycled after use. Recovery and recycling provide increasing amounts of some chemicals. As environmental concerns increase, these operations will probably become an important source of materials used in the manufacture of certain polymers. 

On plastics are fastened recycling symbol that could be by abbreviations of the type of polymer utilized in its production, and number at the middle. They are generally situated under the plastic container. Such are representative the kind of polymer utilized in producing the plastic, therefore knowledge of the composition of each plastic product can be recognized to lead in recycling plastics made from the similar polymer. The number as well specifies the ease of recycling. Lower numbers implies they can simply be recycled. Below are varieties of polymers utilized in manufacturing plastic materials: 

Table: Varieties of Polymers used in Manufacturing Plastic Materials Polymer Abbreviation Recycling number Plastic material

  • Polystyrene [poly phenyl ethylene] the polymer acquired from chain-growth polymerization reactions of phenyl ethylene provides significant products as toothbrushes, disposable food containers, packaging, toys, egg cartons, cups and insulators. The polymer is pumped through abundance of air to create materials used in house construction.
  • Basic raw substances for producing polymers are their monomers. Most of the polymers created are additional worked on to make significant ended products we utilize frequently. Several of that have been stated earlier, another list of monomers and the polymers they form by the ordinary final materials they are put can be originate in Module instances contain polypropylene, PVC, teflon, nylon, dacron, orlon, rayon, vinyon.
  • Evidences and practical instances of sources of raw materials for polymers in Nigeria.

Nigeria is extremely populated, the 1th in the world and most populous in Africa. She is endowed through huge amounts of varieties of natural resources these as petroleum, minerals and agricultural products. Report of the Vision 2010 committee in the year 1997 specify that the manufacturing sector of the nation should be able to add about 24% to the average annual GDP [Gross Domestic Products] that is still below 10% now. It is consequently the aim of the committee to maximally utilize our natural resources and raw materials into completed products for exportations to build up our economy. Currently the country isn't extremely buoyant in raw materials for producing polymer products. The subsequent are lay-out of basic raw materials available in Nigeria utilized via the manufacturing sector of the country.   

Table: Raw materials in Nigeria

S/N

Item

Occurrence

Location

Estimated

reserve [tonnes]

Comments

1

Copper

Sulphides, oxides

Bauchi

undetermined

Exploration is

extended to

Plateau granites.

2

Lead and

zinc

Sulphides

Ebonyi

Bauchi

2-2.5 million

undetermined

Commercial

exploitation

ceased during

civil war.

3

Tin

Oxides

Plateau

200,000

Very well

developed, but

urgent need to

discover new

deposits.

4

Aluminium

Oxide

Gongola,

C/River

underdetermined

Accelerated

exploration

programmes

urgently required,

for all nation's

need are

imported.

5

Bauxite

Oxides and

hydroxides

Gongola,

C/River

undetermined

The sole source

of Al for our

industries,

presently

imported.

6

Clay

Silicates

Eastern

states

billions

Deposits exceed

domestic need.

7

Gypsum

Sulphates

Gombe,

Taraba,

Borno,

Sokoto,

Benue

Estimated to be

very large i

FG ban on

importation, has

pick-up tempo on

exploration and

exploitation. To

reach minimum

of 50% by 2010.

8

Limestone

Carbonate

Enugu,

Bendel,

Ogun,

Gombe,

Sokoto,

C/River,

Abia

billions

Major raw

material for

cement. Reserve

exceeds present

industrial needs

including use in

steel plants.

9

Asbestos

Silicate

Kaduna

small

Detail studies

desirable.

10

Coal and

lignite

Native

Enugu,

Abia,

Benue,

Nasarawa,

Plateau,

Gombe

350 million, still

to be fully

investigated

On very strong

footing. But

Nigerian coal is

non-cooking.

11

Bitumen

Petroleum

Edo,

Ogun,

Ondo,

Lagos,

Abakaliki,

Anambra,

Abia,

Ebonyi

Above 42.7

billion barrels

 

Sources: (1) prof. D.m. Orazulike (2002). The solid mineral resources of nigeria: maximizing utilization for industrial and technological enlargement. Inaugural lectures series. P.299-343. 

(2) prof I.B. odeyemi (2001). Minerals and man: an inseparable duo. Inaugural lectures series. P.572.

Resources from solid minerals comprise (i) iron and iron-alloy metals (ii) non-ferous industrial metals (iii) valuable metals (iv) metal fuel and (v) industrial minerals. There are 6 cement plants in Nigeria. 

Activity A: List the 6 Nigerian Cement Industries.

WAPCO Lagos; BCC Gboko; ACC Gombe; Nigercem Nkalagu; Bcc Ltd Okpella; CCNN, Sokoto.  

  • Expensive/ non-economic process of producing polymers

Such are generally laboratory preparations, where costing and gains aren't actually put into considerations. The chief aim is to show and confirm that a process can work, or a polymer can be generated experimentally. Medical applications of polymers and in drugs that are determinants of life are good examples of polymers that are attained via expensive process of production. Many times, these are particularly demanded for or Government sponsore the production of the polymers. These instances comprise 'Life science products' that are generally generated through extremely high specifications and are directly scrutinized via government agencies these as the Food and Drug Administration. Crop protection chemicals, about 10 percent of this category, comprise herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides.

Specialty chemicals are an additional category of comparatively high valued, speedily growing chemicals by diverse end product markets. Characteristic growth rates are one to 3 times GDP by prices over a dollar per pound. They are usually characterized via their innovative facts. Products are sold for what they can do rather than for what chemicals they enclose. Products comprise electronic chemicals, industrial gases, adhesives and sealants in addition to coatings, industrial and institutional cleaning chemicals, and catalysts. Coatings make up about 15 percent of specialty chemicals sales, by other products ranging from 10 to 13 percent.

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