Industrial production of polymers is depends on how they can be economically attained. Many significant polymers are synthesized for economic reasons such as higher yields and durability. Starting substances are the raw materials from that polymer are made. They as well comprise probability of conditions for producing them and the total costs of production to build it fit and meet the reason for which they are made. We will be considering several instances.
Industrial production of polymers engages cheapest techniques of producing them, which embraces both cheap sources of the raw materials and feasibility through economic conditions of producing them.
Polyethylene is significant for making nylon bags, disposable wraps, water bags and bottles, beach chairs and so on. Composition of polyethylene looks simple, but it isn't all that simple to generate. It is a calculation chain-growth polymerization reaction. The desirered should engage less stringent and outrageous conditions of high pressure and temperature. As well the softening temperature should be high. The density should be high, by appropriate textures [for example crystallizability, rigidity, softness, crispy feels, amorphous nature and so on].
(i) Procedure of high pressure [ICI] technique entail minute amount of oxygen as free radical initiator on ethene at pressure of 1500 atm and temperature of 2000C.
nCH2= CH2 [CH2-CH2] n [e.g. n=103]
The polymeric chain created is of low density of 0.92g/cm3 and has methyl branching.
(ii) Phillips procedure takes place between 150-1800C and 30-35atm, through chromium III oxide as catalyst and mixture of SiO2 and Al2O3 in ratio 9:1, via ionic mechanism. There is methyl branching on the polymeric chain structured by higher density of 0.96g/cm3, through softening temperature of 130-1360C. The conditions are a little less stringent than the high pressure technique and product is of higher density.
(iii) Zeigler process occurs at 50-750C and 2-7atm that is quite moderate. TiCl4 and Al (CH3)3 act as catalyst as ethene is passed into it. Dilute acids decompose the catalysts after reaction is accomplished, followed by division of the product via filtration. Polymerization is via ionic mechanism. Product attained has moderate high density of 0.945cm3, through softening temperature of 120-1280C.
The last 2 process are preferred; the polymer formed is of elevated density as all ionic mechanism, through molecules regularly packed and closer, therefore more rigid and crystalline. They have high tensile strength, elevated softening temperatures.
Plastics are extremely significant as containers. They come in varieties, and are frequently recycled after use. Recovery and recycling provide increasing amounts of some chemicals. As environmental concerns increase, these operations will probably become an important source of materials used in the manufacture of certain polymers.
On plastics are fastened recycling symbol that could be by abbreviations of the type of polymer utilized in its production, and number at the middle. They are generally situated under the plastic container. Such are representative the kind of polymer utilized in producing the plastic, therefore knowledge of the composition of each plastic product can be recognized to lead in recycling plastics made from the similar polymer. The number as well specifies the ease of recycling. Lower numbers implies they can simply be recycled. Below are varieties of polymers utilized in manufacturing plastic materials:
Table: Varieties of Polymers used in Manufacturing Plastic Materials Polymer Abbreviation Recycling number Plastic material
Nigeria is extremely populated, the 1th in the world and most populous in Africa. She is endowed through huge amounts of varieties of natural resources these as petroleum, minerals and agricultural products. Report of the Vision 2010 committee in the year 1997 specify that the manufacturing sector of the nation should be able to add about 24% to the average annual GDP [Gross Domestic Products] that is still below 10% now. It is consequently the aim of the committee to maximally utilize our natural resources and raw materials into completed products for exportations to build up our economy. Currently the country isn't extremely buoyant in raw materials for producing polymer products. The subsequent are lay-out of basic raw materials available in Nigeria utilized via the manufacturing sector of the country.
Table: Raw materials in Nigeria
urgent need to
for all nation's
The sole source
of Al for our
Estimated to be
very large i
FG ban on
pick-up tempo on
of 50% by 2010.
including use in
350 million, still
to be fully
On very strong
Nigerian coal is
Sources: (1) prof. D.m. Orazulike (2002). The solid mineral resources of nigeria: maximizing utilization for industrial and technological enlargement. Inaugural lectures series. P.299-343.
(2) prof I.B. odeyemi (2001). Minerals and man: an inseparable duo. Inaugural lectures series. P.572.
Resources from solid minerals comprise (i) iron and iron-alloy metals (ii) non-ferous industrial metals (iii) valuable metals (iv) metal fuel and (v) industrial minerals. There are 6 cement plants in Nigeria.
Activity A: List the 6 Nigerian Cement Industries.
WAPCO Lagos; BCC Gboko; ACC Gombe; Nigercem Nkalagu; Bcc Ltd Okpella; CCNN, Sokoto.
Such are generally laboratory preparations, where costing and gains aren't actually put into considerations. The chief aim is to show and confirm that a process can work, or a polymer can be generated experimentally. Medical applications of polymers and in drugs that are determinants of life are good examples of polymers that are attained via expensive process of production. Many times, these are particularly demanded for or Government sponsore the production of the polymers. These instances comprise 'Life science products' that are generally generated through extremely high specifications and are directly scrutinized via government agencies these as the Food and Drug Administration. Crop protection chemicals, about 10 percent of this category, comprise herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides.
Specialty chemicals are an additional category of comparatively high valued, speedily growing chemicals by diverse end product markets. Characteristic growth rates are one to 3 times GDP by prices over a dollar per pound. They are usually characterized via their innovative facts. Products are sold for what they can do rather than for what chemicals they enclose. Products comprise electronic chemicals, industrial gases, adhesives and sealants in addition to coatings, industrial and institutional cleaning chemicals, and catalysts. Coatings make up about 15 percent of specialty chemicals sales, by other products ranging from 10 to 13 percent.
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