Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance:
The factors of Mendel were termed genes by Johansen in the year 1909, who did not know their exact structure and nature.
Sutton mentioned the gene concept that was elaborated by the studies of Bridges, Morgan, and Miller.
The significant features of the gene concept are as follows:
A. Genes are conveyed from parents to offsprings and are accountable for the physical and physiological characteristics of the organism that are present within the nucleus of the cell.
B. The genes are existed on the chromosome.
C. As the number of genes exceeds the number of chromosomes, numerous genes are situated on each chromosome. In man around 40,000 genes are existed in 23 pairs of chromosomes.
D. The genes are existed at a particular position on the chromosome termed as locus.
E. The genes are arranged on the chromosomes in a linear order such as beads on a string.
F. A single gene might have more than one functional form or state. These functional states are termed to as alleles.
G. The alleles might be dominant or recessive however at times co-dominance or incomplete dominance might be seen.
H. Genes might undergo rapid heritable changes termed as mutations, induced by physical and chemical factors.
I. Due to mutation a gene might come to hold more than two alternative states and such states of the gene are termed as multiple alleles.
J. Genes undergo duplication by a phenomenon termed as replication.
K. Genes are accountable for the production of proteins termed as enzymes by which they exhibit their expression that brings about a change in the organism.
L. A gene is a specific DNA segment that includes the information to synthesize one polypeptide chain or one enzyme. The information is contained as a series of nucleotides that is termed as genetic code. The series of three nucleotides that code for an amino acid is termed as Codon.
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