Transmission and Expression of Characters, Biology tutorial

Introduction:

The transmission of features or factors from parents to offspring is termed as inheritance or heredity. Various features or traits are transmitted from parents to the offspring or descendants and from generation to generation. These kinds of traits or features are termed as transmittable traits.

Transmittable traits in Humans:

The Transmittable traits in human beings comprise:

1) Body shape or stature

2) Color of hair, skin and eye

3) Size of head, nose and ear

4) Shape of head, nose and ear

5) Feature of voice or speech

6) Height of human

7) Intelligence

8) Baldness

9) Blood grouping

10) Tongue rolling

11) Color blindness

12) Finger-prints

13) Haemophilia

14) Sickle cell anaemia

15) Ability to taste

Transmittable traits in Plants

1) Height of plant

2) Size of the leaf

3) Color of leaf, flower, fruits and seeds

4) Size or weight of the fruit

5) Taste of fruit

6) Food content of fruit

7) Texture of Leaf

8) Resistance to environmental features such as diseases and pests of drought.

9) Shape of fruit, leaf and flower

10) Life-span or habit of growth.

How features get transmitted and act from Generation to Generation:

The traits or features which are controlled by the genes can only be transmitted. In another words, inherited traits or features are determined by genes. A diploid organism consists of two sets of chromosomes termed to as homologues.  Such an organism consists of two copies of each gene, having the copies occupying similar locations or loci on the homologous chromosomes.

Diploid organisms generate gametes through meiosis in their reproductive organs. A male individual generates sperms whereas a female generates egg ova or cells. Throughout meiosis, the number of chromosomes in a cell is halved. The gametes are thus haploid, having one set of chromosomes and thus just one copy of each and every gene.

All through the sexual reproduction, the gametes of a male and female individual or parent fuse to build zygotes. Each and every zygote is diploid as it gets one set of chromosomes and therefore one copy of each from the gamete of every parent. Characters find out by genes are therefore transmitted from parents to offspring via gametes.

The gene, an organism comes into throughout fertilization termed as genotype remains constant all through life. The phenotype that is the physical appearance or traits of an organism is finding out by its genotype and the atmosphere in which it lives. Therefore, organisms with similar genotype might possess various phenotypes when they live in distinct environments.

Applications of Transmission of Factors or Characters:

The transmission of factors can be functioned in many ways as:

Asexual and Sexual Reproduction:

Sexual reproduction comprises the fusion of female and male gametes. This results in the inheritance of factors from both parents. The offspring from sexual reproduction have mainly variations.

The Asexual reproduction results from the inheritance of one parent. The offspring are precisely identical to the parents. The inherited characters or factors are enviable in many cases however lead to weak offspring that is a disadvantage.

Cross-fertilization and Self-fertilization:

In the process of cross-fertilization, new genes are recombined and offspring of cross-fertilization are more virile. The process of Self-fertilization doesn't comprise the gene recombination and their offspring are not virile.

In-breeding and Out-breeding:

In-breeding is a reproduction having close relatives as parents whereas out-breeding is reproduction having unrelated members of the species as parents. In in-breeding, enviable characters like speed and perseverance in racehorses and hunting and entertainment effectiveness in dogs are preserved. In plants, inbreeding is employed to maintain the excellence and quantities of fruit yields, however simply exhibit signs of weakness.

Out breeding brings new recombination and hybrid vigour in the offspring.

Application of Genetic to Agriculture:

Man chooses and cultivates wild plants having desirable characters. Man as well chooses and domesticates wild animals which encompass desirable characters.

1) Via selective cross-breeding, latest varieties of plants and domesticated animals have come into view.

2) Latest varieties of animals and plants comes out naturally, man now chooses and breeds by crossing the varieties of animals and plants and by certain desirable qualities by the procedure of plant or animal breeding.

3) Enhancement in the quality of yield.

4) Growth of disease-resistant varieties.

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