Urine-Sugar analysis

Urine-Sugar analysis:

The test of urine (i.e., physical, chemical & microscopic) is termed as Urinalysis.  It gives a valuable picture of the common health pattern of a patient. Urinalysis is generally done to

  1. Find out the status of the kidneys and the urinary tract, and
  2. Gather information about systemic and metabolic abnormalities.

To detect metabolic and systemic disorders like diabetes and jaundice, tests for glucose, bilirubin, ketone bodies, and urobilinogen must be carried out.

Collection and preservation of Urine:

Urine is mostly composed of 95% water, and the rest being made up of uric acid, urea, creatinine, sodium, chloride, calcium, potassium, phosphates and so on. It should be collected in a clean, dry container and observed as soon as possible. For testing glucose, urine collected 2-3 hours after food is appropriate.

Sugar Analysis:

Sugars are usually termed as reducing substances as they can diminish a heavy metal, like copper, from a higher to a lower oxidation state for illustration, the decrease of blue cupric sulphate to red cuprous oxide.

Glucose, fructose, lactose, galactose, pentoses, sucrose and so on are the dropping substances found in urine. Even though there are numerous reducing substances in the urine, estimation of glucose is significant, as it points out the hyperglycemic situation.

Significance of Glucose:

Glucose is present in trace quantities in normal urine. In kidneys, glucose is filtered by the glomeruli and re-absorbed by the tubules. Over a certain limit the tubules can’t reabsorb all the glucose. The excess glucose appears in urine and this situation is term as glycosuria.   Whenever glycosuria is detected and hyperglycemia (i.e., excess glucose) is established, the chronic disorder, diabetes mellitus is pointed out. In this situation as much as 280 milli moles/ L of glucose can be found in urine. It points out disturbances in lipid, carbohydrate, and protein metabolism.

Urine glucose is tested both quantitatively and qualitatively. Benedicts test is the qualitative test to point out the presence or absence of sugars. Various types of quantitative tests, each of them depend on some principle are also used to quantitative the urine sugar content. Some of them are Bendicts reagent technique, glucose oxidase technique, o- toluidene technique and so on.

Thin layer chromatography is believed a superior technique for recognition of urine sugars. Lately, digital glucometer is in practice for immediate determination of blood glucose levels.


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