Clostridium Botulinum

Clostridium Botulinum:

Clostridium botulinum is an anaerobic Gram positive motile bacillus with peritrichous flagella. This is a saprophyte broadly seen in soil, fruits, vegetable, leaves, manure and mud of sea and lake. It generates a potent neurotoxin in food. It generates spores that are oval in shape and sub terminal. They resist boiling and heating and are generally damaged by moist heat at 120 deg C in 5 minutes. Inadequate heating in the procedure of preserving food might cause the multiplication of the organism.

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Toxins of C. botulinum:

Botulinal toxins are amongst the most poisonous natural substances recognized. There are 7 major kinds of C. botulinum and they are termed as A to G. All of them generate antigenically distinct toxins however their actions are similar and they all cause human diseases, however A, B and E are most general. When antitoxin is specified to a patient in an emergency, type specific antitoxin will be efficient. Type E strains are related with marine products however Type A and B are related with soil.

Clinical Features:

The period among the ingestion of toxins and appearance of signs and symptoms is 1 to 2 days however it might be longer also. Initially there is nausea and vomiting. The oculomotor muscles are affected and there might be vertigo and blurred vision. There is progressive descending motor loss with flaccid paralysis however with no loss of consciousness or sensation. The patient is thirsty with a dry mouth and tongue; there are complexities in speech and swallowing with later troubles of breathing and despair. There might be abdominal pain and restlessness. Death is due to the respiratory and cardiac failure.


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