- +44 141 628 6080
- [email protected]

** Introduction to the Postulates of Quantum Mechanics**:

We have assessed the mathematics (that is, complex linear algebra) essential to understand the quantum mechanics. We will now observe how the physics of quantum mechanics fits into this mathematical frame-work.

A postulate is a somewhat which is supposed to be self-evident, requiring no proof, employed as a basis for the reasoning. The postulates of Quantum Mechanics are the minimum conditions which should be satisfied for Quantum Mechanics to hold. Whenever Quantum mechanics works based on such postulates, it signifies that the postulates are true.

I) ** Physical meaning of the Wave-function**:

Postulate 1: The wave-function tries to explain a quantum mechanical entity (that is, photon, electron, x-ray and so on) via its spatial location and time dependence, that is, the wave-function is in the most general sense based on time and space:

Ψ = Ψ(x,t)

The state of a quantum mechanical system is fully specified through the wave-function Ψ(x,t).

The Probability that a particle will be found out at time t_{o} in a spatial interval of width dx centered around x_{o} is found out by the wave-function as:

P (x_{o},t_{o}) dx = Ψ*( x_{o},t_{o})Ψ(x_{o},t_{o})dx = |Ψ(x_{o},t_{o})|^{2}dx

Note: Dissimilar for a classical wave, by well-defined amplitude, the Ψ(x,t) amplitude is not ascribed a meaning.

In order for Ψ(x,t) to symbolize a viable physical state, some of the conditions are needed:

a) The wave-function should be a single-valued function of the spatial coordinates. (That is, single probability for being in the given spatial interval)

b) The first derivative of the wave-function should be continuous in such a way that the second derivative exists in order to satisfy the Schrodinger equation.

c) The wave-function can't encompass infinite amplitude over a finite interval. This would prevent normalization over the interval.

II) *Experimental Observables Correspond to Quantum Mechanical Operators*

Postulate 2: For each and every measurable property of the system in classical mechanics like position, momentum and energy, there exists a corresponding operator in the quantum mechanics. The experiment in the lab to compute a value for such an observable is simulated in theory via operating the wave-function of the system by the corresponding operator.

Note: Quantum mechanical operators are classified as the Hermitian operators as they are analogs of Hermitian matrices which are stated as having only real Eigen-values. As well, the Eigen functions of the Hermitian operators are orthogonal.

Table: (Engel and Reid): list of classical observables and quantum mechanics operator.

Note: The operators act on a wave-function from the left, and the order of operations is significant (that is, much as in the case of multiplying by matrices-commutativity is significant).

*III. Individual Measurements:*

Postulate 3: For a single measurement of the observable corresponding to a quantum mechanical operator, only values which Eigen-values are of the operator will be measured.

Whenever measuring energy: one gets Eigen-values of the time-independent Schrodinger equation:

H ˆ Ψn(x,t) = En Ψn(x,t)

Note: The net wave-function stating a given state of a particle requires not is an Eigen-function of the operator (however one can expand the wave-function in terms of the Eigen-functions of the operator as a complete basis).

IV) ** Expectation Values and Collapse of the Wave-function**:

Postulate 4: The average or expectation, value of the observable corresponding to a quantum mechanical operator is represented by:

This is the most common form for the expectation value expression. If the wave-function is normalized, then the denominator is identically 1 (this is supposed to be the case since each and every valid wave-function should be normalized).

V) ** Time Evolution**:

Postulate 5: The time-dependent Schrodinger equation regulates the time evolution of a quantum mechanical system:

Note: The Hamiltonian operator Hˆ comprises the kinetic and potential operators. This equation reflects the deterministic (Newtonian) nature of the particles or waves. It comes out to be in contrast to Postulate 4 (that is, most of the observations lead to the different measured observables, each weighted differently, that is, a probabilistic view of the particle or wave). The reconciliation is in the fact that Postulate 4 relates to the outcomes of measurements at a particular instant in time. Postulate 5 let us to propagate the wave-function in time (that is, we propagate a probabilistic entity). Then, at certain future time, if we make the other measurement, we are again faced by the implications of Postulate 4.

** The Correspondence Principle**:

The correspondence principle defines that as the quantum number 'n' becomes big, quantum mechanics must approximate the classical mechanics. For a new theory to be acceptable, it should conform to the well-tested existing theories. In this vein, the special theory of relativity, that is significant only if the velocities comprised are large, should conform to Newtonian mechanics if the velocities comprised are small day to day values. As an illustration of this law, we consider the Hydrogen atom as treated by the Bohr. The frequency of the radiation emitted or absorbed in the transition between states n and n' is,

E_{nn'} = R_{E }[(1/n'^{2}) - (1/n^{2})]

Here 'R_{E}' is the Rydberg energy.

Now, classical mechanics forecasts a continuous spectrum, while Bohr's theory gives mount to discrete lines. Let us take n' as being equivalent to n + 1, then

E_{nn'} = R_{E} [1/(n+1)^{2} - 1/n^{2}] = R_{E }[(n+1)^{-2} - n^{-2}]

On applying the Binomial expansion:

R_{E} [(n+1)^{-2} - n^{-2}] = R_{E} [n^{-2} - 2n^{-3} + (2)(3)n^{-4} - .... -n^{-2}]

Hence,

E_{nn'} ≈ - 2/n^{3} R_{E}

This tends to zero as 'n' tends to infinity. We conclude thus, that as 'n' tends to infinity; the spectrum becomes continuous, as predicted through the classical mechanics.

**Tutorsglobe: A way to secure high grade in your curriculum (Online Tutoring)**

Expand your confidence, grow study skills and improve your grades.

Since 2009, Tutorsglobe has proactively helped millions of students to get better grades in school, college or university and score well in competitive tests with live, one-on-one online tutoring.

Using an advanced developed tutoring system providing little or no wait time, the students are connected on-demand with a tutor at www.tutorsglobe.com. Students work one-on-one, in real-time with a tutor, communicating and studying using a virtual whiteboard technology. Scientific and mathematical notation, symbols, geometric figures, graphing and freehand drawing can be rendered quickly and easily in the advanced whiteboard.

Free to know our price and packages for online physics tutoring. Chat with us or submit request at [email protected]

1955822

Questions

Asked

3689

Tutors

1494143

Questions

Answered

Start Excelling in your courses, Ask an Expert and get answers for your homework and assignments!!

Submit AssignmentÂ©TutorsGlobe All rights reserved 2022-2023.

## RC Oscillators

rc oscillators tutorial all along with the key concepts of phase shift principle,rc or phase shift oscillator, frequency of oscillation, wien bridge oscillator, phase shift principle