Other Functional Groups Homework Help - K-12 Grade Level, College Level Chemistry

Introduction to Other Functional Groups

The last topic we have discussed has focused on the carbon framework which describes organic compounds and has provided a set of nomenclature rules that, with some modification, apply to all this type of compounds. Beginning to functional group nomenclature was limited to carbon-carbon double and triple bonds, and simple halogen groups. Though there are several other functional groups which are covered by the IUPAC nomenclature system. An abstract description of some of these groups and the characteristic nomenclature terms for each is presented in the table. Particular illustrations of their nomenclature will be provided as the chemistry of each group is discussed.

The Suffixes and Group Names for Some Common Functional Groups

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Note: other than "ene" and "yne", only one functional group suffix, can be used in a given name. The table displayed in the diagram presents the priority order of suffix carrying groups in arriving at a IUPAC name. When a compound consist more than one type of group in this list, principal characteristic group is the one nearest the top. All other groups are then referred to as prefixes.

Decreasing the Priority Order of Principle Characteristic Groups Identified by a Suffix

1.   Acids (in the order COOH, C(O)O2H; then their S and Se derivatives, followed by the sulfonic, sulfinic and the selenonic etc., phosphonic and the arsonic etc., acids)

2.   Anhydrides

3.   Esters

4.   Acid halides

5.   Amides

6.   Hydrazides

7.   Imides

8.   Nitriles

9.   Aldehydes, followed by thioaldehydes & selenoaldehydes

10.   Ketones, followed by thioketones & selenoketones

11.   Alcohols and Phenols, followed by thiols & selenols

12.   Hydroperoxides, followed by thiohydroperoxides & selenohydroperoxides

13.   Amines

14.   Imines

15.   Hydrazines, Phosphanes, etc.

16.   Ethers followed by sulfides & selenides

17.   Peroxides, followed by disulfides & diselenides

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