Periodic Properties

Periodic Properties:

Repetition of properties of elements at customary intervals in the periodic table is termed as periodicity in properties. The periodicity is generally due to the same outermost electronic configuration of the elements. Some of the properties are briefly explained.

Atomic and Ionic radii:

Atomic or Ionic radius is usually stated as the distance among the centre of the nucleus and the outermost shell of electrons in an atom or ion.

As we go from left to right across a period, there is regular reduction in atomic and ionic radii of the elements. This is due to the raise in the nuclear charge and the additive electrons are added to similar electronic level. On moving down a group both atomic and ionic radii raise with increasing atomic number. The raise in size is due to introduction of additional energy shells that outweigh the effect of raised nuclear charge.

Ionisation Energy (Ionisation Potential):

The energy needed to eliminate the most loosely bound electron from an isolated atom in the gaseous state in termed as Ionisation Energy.

1915_Ionisation chart.jpg

The ionisation energy of an atom based on the factors shown below:

(1) Size of the atom
(2) Charge on the nucleus
(3) Screening outcome of inner electrons
(4) Penetration consequence of electrons
(5) Effect of half-filled and totally filled sublevels.

In a period, the value of ionisation potential rises from left to right with breaks where the atoms have rather stable configurations. In a group, the ionisation potential reduces from top to bottom.

Electron affinity:

Electron affinity or electron gain enthalpy is the quantity of energy discharged when an isolated gaseous atom allows an electron to form a monovalent gaseous anion.

Atom (g) + Electron → Anion (g) + Energy

Electron gain enthalpies usually rise on moving from left to right in a period. Electron gain enthalpies usually reduce on moving down the group.


Electronegativity might be stated as the relative tendency of atom in a molecule to attract the shared pair of electrons to it.
In a period, electro-negativity raises on moving from left to right. This is due to the reason that the nuclear charge raises whereas atomic radius reduces. In a group, electro-negativity reduces on moving down the group. This is due to the effect of the raised atomic radius.

Anomalous periodic properties:

Some irregularities which are seen in the increasing values of ionisation potential all along a period can be demonstrated on the basis of the concept of half-filled and totally filled orbitals.


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