Engineering Thermodynamics

Importance of Engineering thermodynamic in Academic Curriculum

Thermodynamics is the science of energy transfer and its causes and effect. Thermodynamics deals with two approaches namely microscopic and macroscopic. In microscopic thermodynamic, the behavior of individual molecules finds out like temperature and pressure. It is single particle consideration. This approach applied at higher altitudes due to less density. In macroscopic thermodynamics, the behavior of whole molecules taken into consideration. This approach can’t be applied on higher attitudes. Thermodynamics is the subfield of physics. Chemistry and material science do not study the partial physics. So thermodynamics have its importance in our daily life as well as academics.

Basic concepts of thermodynamics

Thermodynamics can be well-defined as the study of energy, energy conversions and its relation to substance. The analysis of thermal systems is achieved through the application of the governing conservation equations, namely Conservation of Mass, Conservation ofEnergy (1st law of thermodynamics), the 2nd law of thermodynamics and the property relations. Energy can be viewed as the ability to cause changes.

  • System is anassembly of substance within organized and identified boundary. A system may be closed, open or isolated referring to mass transfer takes place or does not takes place across the boundary.
  • Surrounding is typically constrained to those particle of substance external to the system which may be affected by changes in the system and surrounding themselves may form another system.
  • Boundary is a physical or imaginary surface pervasive the system and separating it from the surrounding.

Thermodynamics | Laws, Definition, & Equations

Zeroth law of Thermodynamics: When a body A id in thermal equilibrium with a body B & also separately with a body C then body B & C will be in thermal equilibrium with each other. Zeroth law of thermodynamics is the basis of temperature measurement.

First law of Thermodynamics: First law states that principle of conservation of energy. According to first law, energy nether be not created nor be destroyed. It can be change from one form to another.

The first law for cyclic process

∫dw = j ∫dQ

j = joules equivalent

j = 1 when, Q and w are in joule

j = 1/4.18 cal/joule

Second law of Thermodynamics: Second law of thermodynamics states that the heat always flows from a body at higher temperature to a body at lower temperature but it can't flow in reverse direction spontaneously. Some work must be done to achieve this.

Third law of Thermodynamics: The third law of thermodynamics sates that when temperature approach to absolute zero then that entropy of system approaches a constant value. Change in entropy of system equal to zero at absolute zero temperature. This can be happening if the perfect crystal has only one state with minimum energy.

(ds)universe >= 0

 According to second law of thermodynamics all those process possible which the change in entropy of universe is always greater than or equal to zero. This is known as the principle of increase of Entropy. That is the entropy of universe can never decrease.

Tips to solve thermodynamic problems

Make sure the following things when solving the thermodynamics problems.

(1)   Work done by the system (take + ve sign) and Work done on the system (take - ve sign).

(2)   For reversible process are under the curve on PV diagram gives work done.

(3)   Heat given to the system (take +ve sign) and Heat rejected from the system (take -ve sign).

(4)   Area under the curve on T-S diagram gives heat transfer.

(5)   Internal energy does not depend on path. It is a point function.

(6)   Change in internal energy for a cycle is equal to zero.

(7)   Work done is given by the area enclosed by the process on the PV diagram.

(8)   Always make sure you Heat(Q), Internal Energy(U) and Work(W) with correct sign in equation U = Q - W.

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