Thermoplastic Materials

Introduction to Thermoplastic Materials:

Polyethylene or Polythene:

Polythenes are available like viscous liquids, gums and tough flexible solids appropriate for moulding. They comprise wax such as in appearance, semi-transparent, odourless and one of the lightest plastics. Flexible above a broad temperature range, high resistivity and dielectric strength, chemically resistant. Do not absorb moisture. Dielectric losses and dielectric constant are low. They are comparatively cheap in cost.

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC):

The vinyl chlorides are created from limestone, hydrochloric acid, and natural gas or coal. The types of vinyl chloride are approximately unlimited. PVC is employed in electric and electronic equipment like circuit electrical boxes, computer housing, boards, cables, insulation and adhesive tapes.

The flexible types are tear resistant, strong, and comprise good ageing properties. The rigid types comprise good dimensional stability and they are water resistant. Rigid types are resistant to acids and alkalies. Rigid types become soft across 800C. A rigid type is self extinguishing while ignited and the source of flame is removed. It presents much more resistance to oxygen, ozone and sunlight.

Softening temperature       ........    1200C

Insulation resistance          .........    1012-1013

Dielectric strength [kV/mm] .........    30

For instance PVC is hard to ignite and in the absence of a powerful external flame will not carry on burning. This is because of its chlorine compound. This creates it a perfect construction and cable material. The incineration (burning) of PVC results the release of toxic chemicals such as dioxins and other chemicals that are injurious to humans.

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