Fundamental Concepts of Nano Technology

Introduction to Fundamental Concepts:

One nanometre (nm) is one billionth, or is 10"9, of a meter. With comparison, general carbon- carbon bond lengths, or the spacing among these atoms in a molecule, are in the range 0.12-0.15 nm. Alternatively, the smallest cellular life-forms are approximately 200 nm in length.

To put that scale in other context, the relative size of a nanometre to a meter is similar as that of a marble to the size of the earth. Two major approaches are employed in nanotechnology. In the "bottom-up" method, materials and devices are made from molecular components that assemble themselves chemically through principles of molecular recognition. In the "top-down" method, nano-objects are built from larger entities with no atomic-level control.

Image of rebuilding on a clean Gold(100) surface, like visualized by using scanning tunnelling microscopy. The locations of the each atom composing the surface are visible.

Some physical phenomena become pronounced like the size of the system decreases. These involve statistical mechanical effects, also quantum mechanical effects, for instance the "quantum size effect".

Image of reconstruction on a clean Gold(100) surface

Materials decreased to the nano scale can depict dissimilar properties compared to what they show on a macro scale, that allowing exclusive applications. For example, stable materials turn combustible (aluminum); opaque substances become transparent (copper); insoluble materials become soluble (gold). A material like gold.

Modern synthetic chemistry has arrives at the point where it is feasible to get ready small molecules to approximately any structure. These methods are employed nowadays to manufacture a broad variety of helpful chemicals like pharmaceuticals or commercial polymers.

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