Jet Dyeing Machine, Chemistry tutorial


In the textile industry an assortment of machines are utilized for dyeing. Several of such machines  through  minor  operational  modifications  can  simply accommodate  new  kinds  of  dyes  and  obtain  benefit  of  the  latest advances made in the dyeing equipment technology.

Definition of Jet Dyeing Machine

In the Jet dyeing machine the reel is completely eliminated. A secured tubular system subsists where the fabric is positioned. For transporting the fabric through the tube a jet of dye liquor is supplied through a venturi. The Jet generates turbulence. This assists in dye penetration along through preventing the fabric from touching the walls of the tube. As the fabric is often exposed to moderately higher concentrations of liquor within the transport tube, a tiny amount of dye bath is required in the bottom of the vessel. This is just sufficient for the smooth movement from rear to front. Aqueous jet dyeing machines usually employs a driven winch reel along through a jet nozzle.

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Fig: Features of a Jet Dyeing Machine

Types of Jet Dyeing Machine

In deciding the kind of dyeing machine the subsequent characteristics are usually taken into consideration for differentiating. They are the following.

Shape of the area where the fabric is stored for example long shaped machine or J-box compact machine Kind of the nozzle along by its precise positioning for example above or below the bath level.

Overflow dyeing machine

Overflow Dyeing Machines are designed for employ in fragile knitted and woven fabrics that are made up of natural as well as synthetic fibres. They are as well broadly utilized in the production of carpets. The major dissimilarity between jet and overflow machines is that in jet machines the fabric gets transported via a bath that flows at elevated speed through the nozzle, while in Overflow Dyeing Machine it is the gravitational force of the liquor overflow that is dependable for fabric transportation.

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Fig: Schematic Diagram of an Overflow Dyeing Machine

Functioning of an Overflow Dyeing Machine

A emblematic Overflow Dyeing Machine works like this. A winch that isn't motor driven frequently is located in the top side of the machine where the fabric is hung. A longer length of textile is made to hang from the exit side of the winch as contrasted to the inlet side. Through applying the force of gravitation the longer length of textile is pulled downward more robustly than the shorter one.  As a consequence the fabric is soaked in the bath with no any sort of tension.

Advantages of Overflow Dyeing Machine

No evaporative losses- As the dyeing vessel is closed, there is no evaporative losses stemming from the dye bath. Further, depending on the situation the temperature may be raised to more than 1000oC. No build up of steam condensate in the dye bath- The latest technology implies that the dye bath obtains heated through a heat transducer that is steam driven. This technology apart from being extremely proficient ensures that there is no construct up of steam condensate in the dye bath.

Low liquor ratios- Dyeing is conducted at relatively low liquor ratios, for example 10:1 and may be lesser consequential in substantial savings in water and energy.

Excellent dye liquor contact- Excellent dye liquor contact through the fabric rope consequences in better and more progressed level dyeing. Computer control- The machines are activated via computers and therefore, operator error is removed.

Soft-flow Dyeing Machine

In the soft flow dyeing machine water is employed for keeping the fabric in circulation.  The   conventional difference of this equipment from a conventional jets that operates through a hydraulic system is that the fabric rope is kept circulating during the whole processing cycle (right from loading to unloading). There is no stopping of liquor or fabric circulation for common drain and fill steps. The principle working in the rear the method is extremely exceptional. There is a system for fresh water to enter the vessel via a heat exchanger to a special interchange zone. At the same time the contaminated liquor is channeled out through a drain without any sort of contact through the fabric or for that matter the new batch in the machine.

Key Features of Soft Flow Dyeing Machine

a. Significant savings in processing time.

b. Savings in water that is around 50%.

c. Excellent separation of different streams consequences in optimum heat recovery and a distinct possibility of further use or a dedicated treatment.

Types of Soft Flow Dyeing Machine

A few of the commercially popular brands along through their exacting technical specifications are discussed here. The categories aren't exhaustive as these:

(a) Multi Nozzle Soft Flow Dyeing Machine

Technical features:

Very low Liquor ratio - around 1:1 (Wet Fabric) Can reach high temp. up to 140°C

Easily dye 30 to 450 g/mt.sq. of fabrics (woven & knitted fabrics)

Number of very soft-flow nozzles

No pilling effect

Wide capacity

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Fig: Features of Multi Nozzle Soft Flow Dyeing Machine

(b) High Temperature High Pressure Soft flow Dyeing Machine

Technical features:

Compact body made of stainless steel.

High competence heat exchanger for quick heating/cooling. Compact body made of stainless steel.

Heating rate - around 4°C/Min up to 900°C - around 3°C/Min up to 135°C At steam pressure of 6 Bar.

Cooling Rate- around 4°C/ Min At water pressure of 4 Bar and 15°C.

Maximum working temp is 135°C.

Maximum working pressure of 3.2 Bar.

Control manual in addition to automatic.

Heavy duty stainless steel pump.

Air flow dyeing machine

This is an additional development of the extremely popular jet dyeing machines. The major dissimilarity between the Air Flow Machine and Jet Dyeing machine is that the airflow machine utilizes an air jet in its place of the water jet for keeping the fabric in circulation. Characteristically the fabric is permitted to pass into the storage area that has an extremely tiny amount of free liquor. This consequence in a reduction in consumption of water, energy and chemicals. The bath level is always under the level of the processed textile. Here the fabric doesn't remain in touch through the liquor (the bath used is below the basket that holds the fabric in circulation). This invariably means that the bath situations can be altered with no having any impact on the procedure phase of the substrate.

Advantages of Airflow Dyeing Machine

a. Wholly divided circuit for liquor circulation without getting in touch through the textile

b. Bath less Dyeing operation

c. Rinsing process offers all the added benefits of continuous processing as it is no longer a batch operation

d. Enormously low liquor ratio

e. Virtually nonstop procedure

f. Comparatively lesser energy necessity due to faster heating/cooling and optimum heat recovery from the hot exhausted dye liquors

g. Reduction in consumption of the chemicals (for instance Salt) dosage of that is depend on the amount of dye bath

h. Lesser water consumption savings up to 50% from the conventional Jet dyeing machines

i. Sensitivity towards ecology

j. Economical procedure

k. More safety while dyeing

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