Crop diseases and their control

Crop diseases and their control:

In crop plants the diseases result in a serious loss of crop yields and cause substantial damage to crops year after year. To test the plant diseases, it becomes essential to know about the reasons of the diseases, of the life history of the fundamental organism and of the meteorological conditions that affect the host and parasite interaction.
Control measures might be divided into two major groups. They are:

1. Prophylaxis and
2. Disease resistance.

Prophylaxis involves the safety of the host from exposure to the pathogen, from infection or from environmental issues favorable to disease development. Disease – resistance takes place the enhancement of resistance of the host to infection and to disease development.


Rice: Oryza sativa
Pathogen: Disease incited by a fungus, Pyricularia oryzae
Name of the disease: Blast disease of rice.
Systematic position: The fungus belongs to class: Deuteromycetes.


The symptoms of Blast disease of rice are initiated on the

1. Leaf sheaths,
2. Leaf blades, and
3. Rachis.

Characteristic of it are:
1. Isolated,
2. Bluish – green necrotic lesions with water – soaked appearance are created on the leaf – blades.

The lesions are wide in the centre and possess narrow elongations on its top and bottom. The lesion–formation leads to final drying of the leaves, and the seedlings shrink and after that die.

Later than transplantation, the symptoms come out in the type of necrotic lesions both on the leaf sheaths and the leaf lamina. The necrotic lesion is spindle shaped grey in the centre and stays surrounded from brown and yellowish zones.  The leaves finally dry up.


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